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Chapter 3

Child And Adolescent Development Chapter 3 Notes - 4.0ed this course

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University of Miami
PSY 230

Chapter 3: Prenatal Development, Birth, and the Newborn 3.1—From Conception to Birth Period of the Zygote (Weeks 1-2): • Period begins with fertilization and ends when the fertilized egg, called a zygote, implants itself in the wall of the uterus • During these 2 weeks, the zygote grows rapidly through cell division and travels down the fallopian tube towards the uterus • Division occurs every 12 hours • After about 4 days, the zygote consists of about 100 cells, and resembles a hollow ball, and is called a blastocyst • By the end of the first week, the zygote reaches implantation: the blastocyst burrows into the uterine wall and establishes connections with the mother’s blood vessels • Asmall cluster of cells near the center of the blastocyst, the germ disc, eventually develops into the baby • The layer of cells closest to the uterus becomes the placenta, a structure for exchanging nutrients and wastes between the mother and the developing organism Period of the Embryo (Weeks 3-8) • After the blastocyst is completely embedded in the uterine wall, it is called an embryo • During this period, body structures and internal organs develop • Three layers form: o The outer layer (ectoderm) will become hair, the outer layer of skin, and the nervous system o The middle layer (mesoderm) will form muscles, bones and the circulatory system o The inner layer (endoderm) will form the digestive system and the lungs • The embryo rests in an amniotic sac which is filled with amniotic fluid that cushions the embryo and maintains a constant temperature • The embryo is linked to the mother by two structures: o The umbilical cord- houses blood vessels that join the embryo to the placenta o The placenta- blood vessels from the umbilical cord run close to the mother’s blood vessels but aren’t actually connected to them. Blood flows through villi from the umbilical blood vessels Period of the Fetus (Weeks 9-38) • The final and longest phase of prenatal development extends from the ninth week after conception until birth • Body parts and systems begin to function in the period of the fetus • The increase in weight in this phase is remarkable • During the fetal period, the finishing touches are put on the body systems that are essential to human life, such as the nervous, respiratory, and digestive systems • During the period of the fetus, all regions of the brain grow, particularly the cerebral cortex, the wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many important human behaviors • The skin thickens and becomes covered with a thick greasy substance, vernix, that protects the fetus during its long bath in amniotic fluid Fetal Behavior: • Regular activity cycles emerge where babies kick, somersault and turn—an active fetus is more likely than an inactive fetus to be an unhappy, difficult baby • Not only can the fetus detect sounds and flavors, it can also remember these sensory experiences later 3.2—Influences on Prenatal Development General Risk Factors: • Nutrition o Most pregnant women need to increase their intake of calories by about 10-20% to meet the needs of prenatal development o Folic acid is important for the nervous system to develop properly. When mothers do not consume adequate amounts, their babies are at risk for spina bifida, a disorder in which the embryo’s neural tube does not close properly during the first month of pregnancy • Stress o When pregnant female animals experience constant stress, their offspring are often smaller than average and prone to other problems o When women are stressed during pregnancy they often give birth early, or have underweight babies
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