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Chapter 1

Child And Adolescent Development Chapter 1 Notes - 4.0ed this course

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PSY 230

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Chapter 1: Foundational Theories of Child Development • Five major theoretical perspectives have guided most research on children and their development 1. The Biological Perspective • According to the maturational theory, child development reflects a specific and prearranged scheme or plan within the body: development is simply a natural unfolding of a biological plan and experience matters little • This theory was discarded because it had little to say about the impact of the environment on children’s development • Ethological theory views development from an evolutionary perspective: many behaviors have survival value and are adaptive • Acritical period is the time in development when a specific type of learning can take place; before or after the critical period, the same learning is difficult or even impossible • Imprinting-creating an emotional bond with the mother 2. The Psychodynamic Perspective • Using his patients case histories, Freud created the first psychodynamic theory, which holds that development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages • The id is a reservoir of primitive instincts and drives • The ego is the practical, rational component of personality • The superego is the moral agent • Erikson’s psychosocial theory consists of a sequence of stages, each defined by a unique crisis or challenge. Earlier stages are the foundation for the later stages. 3. The Learning Perspective • Operant conditioning—reinforcement, punishment, etc • Children learn much simply by watching those around them (observational learning) • Albert Bandura and Bobo doll • Bandura also argues that experience gives children a sense of self-efficacy, beliefs about their own abilities and talents 4. The Cognitive-Developmental Perspective • Focuses on how children think and how their thinking changes as they grow 5. The Contextual Perspective • Agree that environment is an important force in development • Each element of the system influences all other elements. This larger system includes one’s parents and sibling and friends and teachers • Culture Early Development is related to Later Development but Not Perfectly: • Belief that development is a continuous process: a happy 5 year old= a happy 15 year old • The other view is the opposite • The continuity-discontinuity issue is really about the “relatedness” of development. • Development is not perfectly predictable Measurement in Child-Development Research: • Systematic Observation o Involves watching children and carefully recording what they do or say o Two forms: naturalistic observation and structured observations (created setting likely to elicit behavior or interest) • Sampling Behavior with Tasks o When investigators ca
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