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Chapter 4

Child And Adolescent Development Chapter 4 Notes - 4.0ed this course

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PSY 230
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Chapter 4- Growth and Health 4.1: Physical Growth: Features of Human Growth: • Describing Growth: o Growth charts describe the average changes in height and weight that take place as children grow o Increases in height and weight from birth to age 20 are not steady. Growth is extraordinarily rapid during the first year o Children’s body parts develop at different rates. The head and trunk grow faster than the legs • Muscle, Fat, and Bones: o Virtually all of the body’s muscle fibers are present at birth. o Fat helps the unborn fetus regulate body temperature. Fat continues to accumulate rapidly during the first year after birth. During the preschool years children become leaner, but in the early elementary school years they begin to acquire more fat again o Bones start as cartilage and during the embryonic period, the center of the tissue turns to bone. Shortly before birth, the ends of the cartilage structures, known as epiphyses, turn to bone • Variations on the average profile: o Changes in physical development from one generation to the next are known as secular growth trend o “average” physical growth varies not only from one generation to the next, but also from one country to another o Whenever a typical or average age is given for a developmental milestone, you should remember that the normal range for passing the milestone is much wider Mechanisms of Physical Growth: • Sleep: o Sleep is essential for normal growth because about 80% of growth hormones are secreted while children and adolescents sleep o Growth hormone is secreted during sleep by the pituitary gland in the brain; from the brain, growth hormone travels to the liver, where it triggers the release of matomedin which causes muscles and bones to grow o Children’s sleep affects their cognitive processes and their adjustment to school o Bedtime routines that help wind down from busy daytime activities are essential • Nutrition: o Nutrition is particularly important during infancy, when physical growth is so rapid. In a 2 month old, roughly 40% of the body’s energy is devoted to growth o An adult needs to consume only 15-20 calories per pound, but a 12 pound infant should eat about 50 calories per pound o Abalanced diet that includes all five major food groups, and little sugar and fat, is most important TheAdolescent Growth Spurt and Puberty: • The biological start of adolescence is puberty, which refers to the adolescent growth spurt and sexual maturation • Girls typically begin their growth spurt about 2 years before boys do • Sexual maturation includes change in primary sex characteristics, which refer to organs that are directly involved in reproduction, and secondary sex characteristics, which are physical signs of maturity that are not linked directly to the reproductive organs • Menarche, the onset of menstruation, typically occurs at about age 13 • At about age 14, most boys reach spermarche, the first spontaneous ejaculation of sperm- laden fluid 4.3- The Developing Nervous System:
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