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Chapter 8

Child And Adolescent Development Chapter 8 Notes - 4.0ed this course

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PSY 230
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Chapter 8- Intelligence and Individual Differences in Cognition 8.1- What is Intelligence? • Psychometric Theories o Psychometricians are psychologists who specialize in measuring psychological characteristics such as intelligence and personality o Fluid intelligence refers to the ability to perceive relations among stimuli o Crystallized intelligence for example, comprises a person’s culturally influenced accumulated knowledge and skills, including understanding printed language, comprehending language, and knowing vocab o Psychometric approaches to intelligence include theories that describe intelligence as a general factor as well as theories that include specific factors • Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences o Nine distinct intelligences o Three are found in psychometric theories—linguistic, logical-math, and spatial o But six are new—musical, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential • Sternberg’s Theory of Successful Intelligence o Intelligence is defined as using abilities to achieve short and long term goals and depends on:  Analytic ability to analyze problems and generate solutions  Creative ability to deal adaptively with novel situations  And practical ability to know what solutions will work 8.2-Measuring Intelligence: • Binet and the Development of Intelligence Testing o Children’s mental age or MAreferred to the difficult of the problems that they could solve correctly.Achild who solved problems that the average 7 year old could pass would have an MAof 7 o Lewis Terman described performance as an intelligence quotient or IQ which was simply the ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100 o Another widely used test, the WISC yields IQ scores based on verbal and performance subtests o Infant tests typically assess mental and motor development o Scores on infant intelligence tests do not predict adult IQ scores, but infant habituation predicts childhood IQs and preschool IQ scores predict adu
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