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Chapter 9

Child And Adolescent Development Chapter 9 Notes - 4.0ed this course

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University of Miami
PSY 230

Chapter 9-Language and Communication 9.1-The Road to Speech Elements of Language: • Language is a system that relates sounds or gestures to meaning • Phonology refers to the sounds of a language • Semantics denotes the study of words and their meanings o Syntax refers to rules that specify how words are combined o Pragmatics refers to the communicative functions of language and the rules that lead to effective communication Perceiving Speech: • Phonemes are the basic units of sound that make up words • Infants can hear phonemes soon after birth. They can even hear phonemes that are not used in their native language, but this ability is lost by narrowing by their first birthday • Before they speak infants can recognize words by noticing stress and syllables that go together. • Infants prefer infant-direct speech (adults speech to infants that is slower and has greater variation in pitch) because it provides them with additional language cues First Steps to Speech: • At about three months babies start to coo • Babbling soon follows, consisting of single syllable over several months, infants babbling includes longer syllables and intonation 9.2- Learning the Meanings of Words: Understanding Words as Symbols: • Children’s first words represent a cognitive accomplishment that is not specific to language. Instead, the onset of speech is due to the child’s ability to interpret and use symbols. • Consistent with this view, there are parallel developments in the use of gestures Fast Mapping Meanings to Words: • Most children learn the meanings of words too rapidly for them to consider all plausible meanings systematically. • Instead, children use a number of fast-mapping rules to determine probable meanings of new words • Joint attention, constraints, sentence cues, and cognitive skills all help children learn words. • An under-extension denotes a child's meaning is narrower than an adults meaning; an overextension denotes a child’s meaning that is broader Individual Differences in Word Learning: • Different vocabulary sizes are attributable to phonological memory and the quality of the child's language environment • Some youngsters use a referential word-learning style that emphasizes words as names and that views language as an intellectual tool. • Others children use an expres
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