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Chapter 10

Child And Adolescent Development Chapter 10 Notes - 4.0ed this course

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University of Miami
PSY 230

Chapter 10- Emotional Development/Temperament 10.1 Emerging Emotions: The Function of Emotions: • Emotions such as fear, happiness, and disgust are all valuable because they help people adapt: keeping them away from danger and strengthening social relationships Experiencing and Expressing Emotions: • Basic emotions are experienced by people worldwide, and each consists of these elements: a subjective feeling, a physiological change, and an overt behavior • basic emotions include joy, anger, and fear, and these emerge within the first year • fear first appears in infancy as stranger wariness • Social smiles first appear when infants smile when they see another person • At about 6 months, infants become wary in the presence of an unfamiliar adult, a reaction known as stranger wariness • Sometimes known as the self-conscious emotions, they involve feelings of success when one’s standards or expectations are met and feelings of failure when they aren’t • Self-conscious emotions have an evaluative component and include guilt, embarrassment, and pride. They require much more sophisticated cognitive skills than basic emotions Recognizing and Using Others’Emotions: • Infants in an unfamiliar or ambiguous environment often look at their mother or father, as if searching for cues to help them interpret the situation, a phenomenon known as social referencing • As children develop, they also begin to learn display rules, culturally specific standards for appropriate expressions of emotion in a particular setting or with a particular person/s • Beyond infancy, children understand the causes and consequences of different emotions, that people can eel multiple emotions simultaneously, and the rules for displaying emotions appropriately Regulating Emotions: • Infants use simple strategies to regulate emotions such as fear • As children grow, they become better skilled t regulating their emotions. Children who do not regulate emotions well tend to have problems interacting with others 10.2-Temperament What Is Temperament? • Such behavioral styles, which are fairly stale across situations and are biologically based make up an infant’s temperament • Temperament refers to a biologically based, stable patterns of behavior that are evident soon after birth • The NY longitudinal study suggested three main categories of temperament, but most modern theories focus on dimensions of temperament. • According to Rothbart’s theory, temperament includes three main dimensions: surgency/extraversion, negative affect, and effortful control Hereditary and Environmental Contributions to Temperament: • The major theories agree that both heredity and environment contribute to temperament. • For many dimensions of temperament, identical twins are more alike than fraternal twins. Positi
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