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Chapter 7

Child And Adolescent Development Chapter 7 Notes - 4.0ed this course

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University of Miami
PSY 230

Chapter 7: Cognitive Processes and Academic Skills 7.1- Memory • Origins of Memory: o Rovee-Collier’s studies of kicking show that infants can remember, forget, and be reminded of events that occurred in the past • Strategies for Remembering: o Memory strategies are actions to promote remembering such as making lists, thinking to where you had something last, etc. o Rehearsal is a strategy of repetitively naming info that is to be remembered o As children get older, they learn new memory strategies such as:  Organization- structuring material to be remembered so that related info is placed together  Elaboration- embellishing info to be remembered to make it more memorable o Analyzing goals and monitoring are two important elements of metamemory, which is a child’s informal understanding of how memory operates o Metamemory includes the ability to diagnose problems accurately and to monitor the effectiveness of a memory strategy o Effective cognitive self-regulation, which are skill identifying goals, selective effective strategies, and monitoring accurately is a characteristic of successful students • Knowledge and Memory: o To remember things, people link objects by association and sometimes create scripts which are a memory structure used to describe things in the sequence in which events occur o Autobiographical memory refers to people’s memory of the significant events and experiences of one’s own lives o Infantile amnesia refers to the inability to remember events from one’s early life o Knowledge improves memory for children although older individuals often reap more benefit because they have more knowledge. Knowledge can also distort memory by causing children to forget info that does not conform to their knowledge or to remember events that did not actually take place o Young children’s testimony in court is often inaccurate because children are questioned repeatedly, which makes it hard for them to distinguish what actually occurred from what adults suggest may have occurred. 7.2- Problem Solving • Developmental Trends in Solving Problems: o As children develop they solve problems more often and solve them more effectively. However, exceptions to the rule are not uncommon: young children sometimes solve problems successfully while adolescents sometimes fail • Features of Children’s andAdolescent’s Problem Solvi
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