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Chapter 8

Abnormal Psychology CHAPTER 8 NOTES - I got a 4.0 in the course

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PSY 240
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Chapter 8- Feeding and Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa: • Binge Eating: o Excess amounts of food in less than 2 hours o Experienced as out of control • Compensatory behaviors o Purging o Excessive exercise o Diarrhea • Binging and Compensation > 1 per week for > 3 months • Most are within 10% of normal weight because they do a good job of compensating their binging and purging • Medical Consequences: o Salivary gland enlargement (big cheeks) o Erosion of dental enamel o Electrolyte imbalance o Kidney failure o Cardiac arrhythmia o Seizures o Intestinal problems o Permanent colon damage (diarrhea) • Associated Psychological Disorders o Anxiety (75%)  Social phobia  GAD o Mood Disorders (50-70%) o Substance abuse (37%) o Elevated suicide risk Anorexia Nervosa: • Overly successful weight loss resulting in significantly low body weight in the context of age, sex, developmental trajectory and physical health. Weight that is less than minimally normal (DSM 5) • Bulimics tend to have the same overall weight,Anorexia is characteristic by extreme weight loss • Intense fears o Gaining weight o Losing control of eating  Relentless pursuit of thinness • Subtypes: o Restricting (hardly eat) o Binge-eating/purging (so good at purging, they lose weight) • Associated features o Body image disturbance o Pride in diet and control o Food rituals o Rarely seek treatment • Medical Consequences: o Amenorrhea o Dry skin o Brittle hair and nails o Sensitivity to cold temperatures o Lanugo (hair that fetuses have on arms, legs, and cheeks) o Cardiovascular problems o Electrolyte imbalance • Psychological: o Anxiety  OCD o Mood disorders (30-60%)  Suicide (12/100,000)  20% of people with anorexia die (half from physical complications and half from suicide) o Substance abuse Bulimia and Anorexia: Statistics: • Lifetime prevalence o Females: Bulimia = 1.5%; Anorexia = 0.9%  point prevalence bulimia in college women= 6-8% o Males: Bulimia = .5%; Anorexia = .3% • Female : male = 9:1 for all eating disorders combined o Caucasian, middle to upper class • Onset = age 18 to 21 o younger for bulimia than for anorexia • Chronic, if untreated o Worse for bulimia • In men o Males are 5-10% of all diagnosed eating disorders  Caucasian, middle to upper class  Disproportionally gay or bisexual  Sometimes athletes with weight regulations o Onset = older than females Binge-Eating Disorder (BED) • Food binges as for bulimia but no compensatory behaviors o Eats rapidly o Eats past comfortably full o Eats huge amounts even if not hungry o Eats alone because of embarrassment o Feels disgusted, depressed, or guilty afterward • Very distressed by binging • Most are obese (but most obese people do NOT binge) • Tend to be older • 35% binge to alleviate bad moods o Less psychologically healthy than other BED • Statistics: o Prevalence: females = 1.6%; males = 0.8%  Rates consistent across cultures o Onset is at any age, but most often in young adulthood o Runs in families, possible genetic component o Treatment more effective than bulimia or anorexia o Progressing from BED to bulimia or anorexia is rare • Cultural Considerations: o North American minority populations o Immigrants to Western cultures  Increase in eating disorders  Increase in obesity o Non Western cultures exposed to Western media o Thinness=success, happiness o Ideal/media body size
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