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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

3 Pages

Course Code
PSY 260

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Part 1: Exploring Personality Chapter 2: Research in Personality • Molar (sociological) – The Incorporate Environment • Intermediate (psychological) – the personality system – the situation -- *personal- report data* -- • Molecular (biological) – the brain and nervous system – the setting Major Types of External-Source Data • Institutional records – grades, marriage certificates, newspaper articles etc. • Observer report – what other observers say about us Major Types of Personal-report Data • Self-judgment – agreeing or disagreeing with a given statement about oneself • Convergent-report – constructing a response that meets a criterion • Thematic-report – creating responses that reflect themes or ideas • Process – report – pertaining to something going on in your mind at the moment Case studies • Easily understandable • Colorful and interesting • Hypothesis generation tools • Unrepresentative • No control Observationism – repeated, intensive, study of cases, over consistent conditions Review of correlation: A. Correlation examines the co-relation between two variables B. Symbol: r C. The r varies from -1.0 to 1.0 D. 1.0 and -1.0 represent perfect relations E. 0 represents a random selection • scatter plot with a slope ex. .83 = percentage = 83% - high relationship but not directly correlated – negative and positive correlations Experimental Methods • Quasi-Experimental Designs o Natural treatment o No randomization – self-selected – too specific to be random o Creative personalities • True Experimental Designs o Experimenter-applied treatments o Randomization Measure of Attributes o Measure attributes of the object o For example, measurement of o Length o Weight Psychometric Theory A. Theories of How to Measure Abstract, Mental Phenomena B. The Central Equation X, the obtained test score * X = T + e * T, the true score e, the error score Reliability A. Demonstration: Take and score a test B. Volunteer scores C. Reliability: does a test measure with consistency? a. Reliability in a Physical Measurement Reliability: • Informal: that a test
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