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Chapter 1

SOC 101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Class Conflict, Anomie, Bourgeoisie

Course Code
SOC 101

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Sociology Chapter 1 Definitions
Agency--> the ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social changes
on a small or large scale
Anomie--> a social condition of normlessness; a state of normative uncertainty that occurs when
people lose touch with the shared rules and values that give order and meaning to their lives
Bourgeoisie--> The capitalist or property owning class
Bureaucracies--> Formal organizations characterized by written rules, hierarchical authority,
and paid staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency
class conflict--> competition between social classes over the distribution of wealth, power, and
other valued resources in society
Collective conscience--> the common beliefs and values that bind a society together
Double Consciousness--> Among African Americans, an awareness of being both American
and Black, never free of racial stigma
Ethnocentrism--> A worldview whereby one judges other cultures by the standards of one's own
culture and regards one's own way of life as "normal" and better than others
Formal rationality--> A context in which people's pursuit of goals is shaped by rules, regulations,
and larger social structures
Globalization--> The process by which people all over the planet become increasingly
interconnected economically, politically, culturally, and environmentally
Inequality--> Differences in wealth, power, and other valued resources
Latent functions--> Functions of an object, an institution, or a phenomenon that are not
recognized or expeccted
Macro- level paradigms--> Theories of the social world that are concerned with large scale
patterns and institutions
Manifest functions--> functions of an object, an institution, or a phenomenon that are obvious
and intended
Means of Production--> The sites and technology that produce the goods we need and use
Micro- level paradigm--> A theory of the social world that is concerned with small group social
relations and interactions
Positivist--> science that is based on facts alone
Power--> The ability to mobilize resources and achieve goals despitre the resistance of others
Proletariat--> The working class; wage workers
Social conflict paradigm--> A theory that seeks to explain social organization and change in
terms of the conflict that is built into social relations; also known as conflict theory
Social Diversity--> The social and cultural mixture of different groups in societal recognition of
difference as significant
Social dynamics--> the laws that govern social change
Social embeddedness--> The idea that economic, political, and other forms of human behavior
are fundamentally shaped by social interactions
Social facts--> qualities of groups that are external to individual members yet constrain their
thinking and behavior
Social solidarity--> the bonds that unite the members of a social group
Social statics--> the way society is held together
Sociological imagination--> the ability to grasp the relationship between individual lives and the
larger social forces that help to shape them
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