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Chapter 6

PSY 383 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Absenteeism, Catecholamine, Role Conflict


Department
Psychology Main
Course Code
PSY 383
Professor
O' Connor
Chapter
6

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Danny Holcomb
Professor O’Connor
Health Psych
26 September 2016
Chapter 6 Notes: Stress
What is stress?
Stress:
Negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical,
physiological, cognitive, and behavioral changes
oAimed at altering the stressful event or accommodating to its effects
Stressors: Events that cause stress
Appraisal of Stressors:
Primary appraisal:
oUnderstanding what an event is and what it will mean
oEvents are appraised for their harm, threat, or challenge
Secondary appraisal:
oAssessing whether personal resources are sufficient to meet the demands
of the environment
Person-environment fit:
oResults from the process of appraising events, assessing potential
resources, and responding to the events
Fight-or-Flight Response:
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Body is aroused and motivated via the sympathetic nervous system and endocrine
system when a threat is perceived
oResult: mobilizes an organism to attack the threat or to flee
Advantage- adaptive
Disadvantage- can be harmful
Origins of the study of stress
The Three Phases of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome:
Criticisms of General Adaptation Syndrome:
Assigns a limited role to psychological factors
Not all stressors produce the same endocrinological responses
Continued activation accumulates the most damage to physiological systems
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Fails to address the debilitating effects of stress
Tend-and-Befriend
In addition to fight or flight, people and animals respond to stress with:
oSocial affiliation
oNurturant behavior toward offspring
Oxytocin is released during stressful events
oActs as an impetus for affiliation
The Physiology of stress
Sympathetic Activation:
Sympathetic nervous system arousal:
oStimulates the medulla of the adrenal glands
oAdrenal glands secretes the catecholamine’s epinephrine (EP) and
norepinephrine (NE)
Parasympathetic functioning: Becomes dysregulated in response to stress
oAffects heart rate variability
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical (HPA) Activation:
Hypothalamus releases corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)
oStimulates secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Stimulates the release of glucocorticoids
Repeated activation of the HPA axis will compromise its functioning
How does Stress Cause Illness?
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