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Chapter 6

PSY 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Connectionism, Iconic Memory, Echoic Memory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 100
Professor
Charles Dofour
Chapter
6

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Chapter 6: Memory
MEMORY AND ITS PROCESSES
- memory: an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and
alters that information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from
storage
- Processes of memory:
o Encoding: the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory
information in order to convert that information into a form that is usable in
the rai’s storage sstes
o Storage: holding onto information for some period of time
o Retrieval: getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used
State dependent retrieval: memories formed during a particular
physiological or psychological state will be easier to remember while
in a similar state eg. when you are arguing with someone, it’s much
easier to remember to all the bad things that person has done than to
remember the good times
Context dependent retrieval: physical surroundings a person is in hen
they are learning specific information eg. encoding specificity would
predict that the best place to take oe’s heistr test is i the sae
room in which you learned the material
Mood dependent retrieval:
MODELS OF MEMORY
- the information processing model assumes that the processing of information for
memory storage is similar to the way in which a computer processes memory- in a
series of three stages
- Parallel distributed processing (PDP) model: memory processes are proposed to take
place at the same time over a large network of neural connections
- the levels-of-processing model assumes that information that is ore deepl
proessed- or processed according to its meaning, rather than just the sound or
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physical characteristics of the word or words- will be remembered more efficiently
and for a longer period of time
SENSORY MEMORY
- the very first stage of memory
o the point at which information enters the nervous system through the
sensory systems
- Iconic memory: visual sensory memory; lasts only a fraction of a second
o Capacity: everything that can be seen at one time
o Duration: information that has just entered iconic memory will be pushed out
very quickly by new information, a process called masking
- Eidetic imagery: the (rare) ability to access a visual memory for thirty seconds or
more
- Echoic memory: the brief memory of something a person has just heard
o Capacity: limited to what can be heard at any one moment; smaller than the
capacity of iconic memory
o Duration: lasts longer than iconic memory; about two to four seconds
SHORT TERM MEMORY
- short term memory (STM; working memory): the memory system in which
information is held for brief periods of time while being used
o Selective attention: the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all
sensory input
- Digit-span test: a series of numbers is read to subjects who are then asked to recall
the numbers in order
o conclusion: the capacity of STM is about seven items or pieces of
information, plus or minus 2 items- or from five to nine bits of information
o agi uer 7
- Chunking: bits of information are combined into meaningful units, or chunks, so that
more information can be held in STM
- Maintenance rehearsal: saying bits of information to be remembered over and over
i oe’s head i order aitai the i short-term memory (STM tend to be
encoded in auditory form)
- STM lasts from about 12 to 30 seconds without rehearsal
- STM is susceptible to interference:
o eg. if counting is interrupted, one will have to start over
LONG TERM MEMORY
- LTM: the memory system into which all the information is placed to be kept more or
less permanently
- Elaborative rehearsal: a method of transferring information from STM into LTM by
making that information meaningful in some way
- Types:
o Non-declarative (implicit) memory: type of long-term memory including
memory for skills, procedures, habits and conditioned responses
these memories are not conscious, but their existence is implied
because they affect conscious behaviour
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implicit memories also include emotional associations, habits and
simple conditioned reflexes that may or may not be in conscious
awareness
Procedural memory (implicit): memory that is not easily brought into
conscious awareness
Anterograde amnesia: loss of memory from the point of injury or
trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories
usually does NOT affect procedural LTM
o Declarative (explicit) memory: type of long-term memory containing
information that is conscious and known
memory for facts
all the things that people know
semantic memory: declarative memory containing general knowledge
knowledge of language, information learned in formal
education
Episodic memory: declarative memory containing personal
information not readily available to others
o daily activities and events
Semantic and episodic memories are forms of explicit memory
memory that is consciously known
ORGANIZATION OF MEMORY
- LTM is organized in terms of related meanings and concepts
- the semantic network model assumes that information is stored in the brain in a
connected fashion
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