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Chapter 1

BIOL 1010 Chapter 1: Biology Ch.1

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BIOL 1010

Biology Ch.1 1.2 Biology is the science of life- • Properties of living and non-living things: movement, complexity, and stimulation • 5 fundamental properties of living organisms: o Cellular organization o Energy utilization o Homeostasis o Growth, development, and reproduction o Heredity • Hierarchical organization of living systems: o Cellular level: atoms are joined together by chemical bonds into stable assemblies called molecules. Large complex molecules are called macromolecules, an example of this is DNA. Complex biological molecules are assembled into tiny structures called organelles within which cellular activities are organized. The mitochondrion is an organelle within which the cell extracts energy from food molecules. Membrane- bounded united called cells are the basic unit of life. o Organismal level: tissue is a group of similar cells that act as a functional unit. Nerve tissue carried electrical signals. Tissues are then grouped into organs- body structures composed of several different tissues that act as a structural and functional unit. Organs are then grouped into organ systems, for example the nervous system. o Population level: individual organisms occupy several hierarchical levels within the living world. The most basic of these is the population- a group of organisms of the same species living in the same place. All populations of a particular kind of organism together form a species, its members similar in appearance and able to interbreed. At a higher level of biological organization, a biological community consists of all the populations of different species living together in one place. o Ecosystem level: The highest tier of biological organization, a biological community and the physical habitat (soil composition, available water, temp. range, wind, and a host of other enviro. Influences) within which it lives together constitiute an ecological system or ecosystem. The entire planet can be thought as a global ecosystem that we call the biosphere. • Emergent properties- novel properties arising from the way in which components interact. They often can’t be deduced solely from knowledge of the individual components. For example, water makes up 50 to 70 % of the human body’s weight and ice is also made up of H2O but they are different in the way that one is a liquid and the other is a solid because the H2O molecules are more organized. 1.3 Science is based on both observation and reasoning • Descripted science: in
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