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Chapter pgs 221-239 notes

PSY 201 Chapter Notes - Chapter pgs 221-239 notes : Neural Adaptation, Learning, Operant Conditioning

Course Code
PSY 201
Dasa Zeithamova Demircan
pgs 221-239 notes

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Learning: a relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience
Freud used verbal report techniques (dream analysis and free association)
Watson said Freud’s approach was unscientific, observable behavior was the
only valid indicator of psychological activity
Founded behaviorism influenced by John Locke
Types of Learning
Nonassociative learning: a response to something in the environment
Learning about a stimulus, such as sight or sound, in the external world
Habituation: when our behavioral response to a stimulus decreases
Sensitization: when our behavioral response to a stimulus increases
Associative learning: linking of two events that, in general, take place one right
after the other
Conditioning: process in which environmental stimuli and behavioral
responses become connected
Classical conditioning: when we learn that a stimulus predicts
another stimulus
Operant conditioning: when we learn that a behavior leads to a
certain outcome
Observational learning: acquiring or changing a behavior after exposure to
another individual performing that behavior
Habituation and Sensitization
Unlike sensory adaptation because you can still perceive stimuli, you just don’t
repeat them because you have learned they aren’t important
Dishabituation: the increase in a response because of a change in something
Behavioral Responses
Classical conditioning: aka pavlovian conditioning a neutral stimulus elicits a
response because it has become associated with a stimulus that already
produces that response
Pavlov: salivary reflex
unconditioned response: response that does not have to be
learned , a reflex. (salivation from food)
Unconditioned stimulus: elicits a response, such as a reflex,
without prior learning. (the food)
Conditioned stimulus : elicits a response only after learning has
taken place. (metronome)
Conditioned response: response to a conditioned stimulus; a
response that has been learned. (salvation)
Acquisition: gradual formation of an association between the
conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
Extinction: a process in which the conditioned response is weakened
when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned
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