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Chapter 8.1

BIO 112 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8.1: Scientific Method

Course Code
BIO 112
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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Jasmine Han
Mendel Questions
1. Primary motivations for performing these experiments: Mendel was interested in
finding how or if traits (genes) could be transferred or passed down to other generations
since he could view these certain traits appear in offspring but didn’t know the
mechanisms or processes behind it.
2. Which parts of Mendel’s work followed the scientific method: Mendel forms a specific
hypothesis when he set up the experiment. He utilized a formalized way of thinking and
took care to make sure that there wasn’t any other variables that could have affected
the experimental plants. He took note of specific observations during each experiment
and made sure to watch for and control other variables such as the temperature as well
as monitoring the transmission of foreign pollen.
3. Diagram the major crosses: There are three different traits in the tetra hybrid cross
(64 offspring). See Attached Page for diagrams and conclusions:
4. What hypothesis is being tested: Mendel wanted to see if traits remained in the gene
pool throughout generations/were inherited or if they were lost. He also wanted to test if
offspring received traits from both parents or from just one parent and if there were traits
that were hidden/not shown but passed on.
5. What are the positive and negative controls: The positive controls were that Mendel
wanted to see if there was a ratio of the dominant and recessive characters and if there
was a relation with the average ratio of 3:1. In addition to that, Mendel wanted to see
some of the traits being passed down into the offspring. The negative controls are when
no phenomena is expected and in this case, Mendel crossed two parents with the
identical traits and he thought that the offspring will be identical so that there will be no
effect. He didn’t know that there were recessive traits that would show up in the second
generation. j
6. What predictions does Mendel make: He was curious of inherited traits but he didn’t
really make a definite prediction or delineate his initial thoughts. However, in the
introduction, Mendel did mention and imply that from fertilization, there will be offspring
that are hybrid and portray traits from both parents.
7. Mendel follows the Strong Inference pretty closely because he used
particular/different systematic methods to eliminate alternatives. However, he wasn’t
caught in his own hypothesis and was open to other ideas if they came up through his
experiments. He did repeat experiments and procedures and was able to form new
hypothesis after gathering the conclusions from separate experiments.
8. On the plot, I think that Mendel’s work will fall in the top upper left because he
incorporated many experiments in order to test his hypothesis. In the same manner, his
tests were manipulative because they involved many specific methods and precautions
to actually carry out the experiments (hands-on).
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