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Biology (150)
BIO 190 (6)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 notes (Exam I).docx

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BIO 190
Elaine Sia

Chapter 1 notes What is forward genetics? Point of interest =>mutants affect in process e.g. irradiation => find the gene => fetermine the function by studying gene and encoding region. What is reverse genetics? Start with gene of interest (comparing DNA sequence from known protein to unknown) => mutate that gene => determine the function. How is DNA cloned? DNA fragment is taken adn repoialted many times over untuk there are many copies. Fragments of the genome are obtained by cutting the DNA by vigorous agitation, scissoring with certain enzymes, etc. Fragments are inserted into self-replicating vectors. The vectors with their loads are introduced to bacterial cells. The vector replicated as the cell divides until it becomes a colony containing clones. What are the advantages of model organisms? Cheap, convenenient Representative system of subject in question e.g. yeast for gustone study, bacteria for DNA Human generation time too long; ethical values. How is DNA probed? DNA from the organism in study is extracte dand cut with enzymes at specific target sequences. Enzyme cuts genome into defined populations of segments of specific sizes. The gragments are separated into groups of fragments of different sizes (fractionated) using electropheresis. After fractionation, the separated fragments are blotted onto a piece orf porous membrane
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