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Chapter 2

PSY 289 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Reticular Formation, Developmental Psychopathology, Caudate Nucleus


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 289
Professor
Aube
Chapter
2

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Big Ideas:
biological
prenatal history, inherited tendencies, brain damage/dysfunction, neurotransmitter imbalances
emotional
emotional regulation ability, generalized emotional responses
behavioral/cognitive
reinforcement/avoidance of negative outcomes, biased interpretation of events based
on early experiences
family/cultural/ethnic
relationships with parents/peers/etc., lack of support and sensitivity from
environment, lack of appropriate limits during development, relevant expectations, poor quality of life
possible causes of abnormal behavior:
abnormal child behavior is influenced by multiple factors1.
children and their environments are interdependent (both actively contribute to maladaptive behavior)
2.
abnormal behavior patterns involve both continuities and discontinuities across childhood/adolescence
3.
assumptions derived from developmental psychopathology:
major perspectives on abnormal child development
biological
(genetic and neurobiological factors),
psychological
(emotions, relationships, and thought processes),
familial/social/cultural
brain structures:
left hemisphere
verbal/other cognitive processes
right hemisphere
social perception/creativity
endocrine system (adrenal/thyroid/pituitary glands)
regulatory system linked to health/stress-related disorders
emotions tell us what to pay attention to/approach and what to ignore/avoid, making them critical to healthy
children attend to others' emotions from a young age, and use caregivers' expressions to understand their
environment
emotion regulation problems involve weak/absent control
emotion
dysregulation
problems involve maladaptive control structures
adaptation to one's environment
applied behavioral analysis (ABA)
behavioral approach that examines the relationships between behavior and its
antecedents and consequences; based on four operant learning principles (positive reinforcement, negative
classical conditioning
(ex: Little Albert) explains the acquisition of deviant behavior on the basis of paired
associations between previously neutral stimuli and unconditioned stimuli
reinforcement, extinction, and punishment)
timeline of normal
development in
Figure 2.2 on pg. 33
brain stem
autonomic functions
hindbrain (medulla/pons/cerebellum)
regulate
autonomic functions and control motor coordination
midbrain
coordinates movement with sensory info
reticular activating system (RAS)
midbrain system
related to arousal and tension
diencephalon (thalamus/hypothalamus)
relay
between forebrain and brainstem areas
limbic system (hippocampus/cingulate gyrus/septum/
amygdala)
regulates emotional experiences/
expressions and basic drives, involved in learning and
impulse control
basal ganglia (inc. caudate nucleus)
regulates,
organizes, and filters info on cognition, emotion,
mood, and motor function (implicated in ADHD)
limbic system
Chapter 2
Monday, September 3, 2018 2:06 PM
Exam 1 Page 1
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