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Chapter 21

BY 108 Chapter Notes - Chapter 21: Bulbous Corpuscle, Lamellar Corpuscle, Hair Follicle


Department
BY-Biology Courses
Course Code
BY 108
Professor
Charles Amser
Chapter
21

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sensory information - gets to central nervous system through 4 steps
4-step process
stimulation - activates sensory neuron
transduction - stimulus transformed into graded potentials
transmission - action potential lead to central nervous system
interpretation - brain analyzes/perceives senses from electrochemical
messages
3 types of stimuli
mechanical forces - stimulate mechanoreceptors
chemicals - stimulate chemoreceptors
electromagnetic/thermal energy - stimulate photoreceptors
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free nerve endings - simplest sensory receptors, respond to mov’t of
sensory neuron membrane, temperature change, chemicals in extracellular
fluid
exteroceptors - receptors receiving info from external environment
most developed in water for vertebrates
interoceptors - receptors receiving info from within body
usually more simple than exteroceptors
stimuli >> stimulus-gated ion channels open >> depolarization (receptor
potential) >> info sent to brain
cutaneous receptors - skin receptors, respond to stimuli at border between
external/internal
thermocreceptors - sensitive to changes in temperature
cold receptors - found right below epidermis
warm receptors - found deeper in dermis
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nociceptors - sensitive to pain
pain = stimulus causing damage to tissue
overstimulated sensory receptors can also produce pain
mechanoreceptors - sensitive to forces applied to membrane
phasic receptors - intermittently activated, hair follicle receptors,
Meissner’s corpuscles
tonic receptors - always activated, Ruffini corpuscles, touch dome
endings (Merkel cells)
Pacinian corpuscles - monitor onset/removal of pressure
proprioceptors - muscle spindles giving info about position/mov’t of body parts
activated when muscle is stretched
not found in bony fishes
inhibits somatic motor neurons when muscle contracts too strongly
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