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Chapter 23

BY 108 Chapter Notes - Chapter 23: Extracellular Fluid, Blood Vessel, Fibrinogen

BY-Biology Courses
Course Code
BY 108
Charles Amser

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types of circulatory systems - open/closed
● open circulatory system - found in mollusks, arthropods
β—‹ no difference between circulating/extracellular fluid
β—‹ hemolymph - collective name for the fluid
● closed circulatory system - circulating fluid (blood) always in vessels
β—‹ found in all vertebrates
circulatory system functions - transportation, regulation, protection
● interstitial fluid - plasma fluid that leaks out of capillaries
β—‹ some return to capillaries, some enter lymph vessels
● inRead invented by Teads
● transportation - substances needed for cellular metabolism carried by
circulatory system
β—‹ erythrocytes carry the hemoglobin which carry oxygen for respiration
β—‹ absorbed nutrients sent to cells throughout body
β—‹ metabolic wastes carried out of body
● regulation - hormones carried in blood to distant organs
β—‹ endotherms - warm-blooded vertebrates
β—‹ cold temperature >> vessels constrict >> warm blood goes to deeper
β—‹ warm temperature >> vessels dilate >> warmth of blood lost through
β—‹ countercurrent heat exchange - vessel w/ warm blood passes by
vessel w/ cold blood
● protection - prevents injury from foreign microbes/toxins
β—‹ blood clotting >> prevents blood loss when vessels get damaged
β—‹ inRead invented by Teads
β—‹ leukocytes (white blood cells) provide immunity against certain
blood - made up of fluid plasma, different types of blood cells
● plasma - extracellular matrix w/ solutes
β—‹ contains metabolites (used by cells), ions (mainly Na, Cl), proteins
(mostly albumin)
β—‹ globulins - carry lipids, steroid hormones
β—‹ fibrinogen - needed for blood clotting
β—‹ serum - plasma w/o fibrinogen
● erythrocytes (red blood cells) - carry oxygen through hemoglobin
β—‹ hematocrit - fraction of blood volume occupied by red blood cells
(45% in humans)
β—‹ develops from stem cells (unspecialized cells)
β—‹ in mammals only, nuclei disappear
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