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Chapter 25

BY 108 Chapter Notes - Chapter 25: Cytotoxic T Cell, Natural Killer Cell, Humoral Immunity

BY-Biology Courses
Course Code
BY 108
Charles Amser

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immune response - 3rd line of defense
● vaccination - infecting harmless virus in order to improve resistance
● antigen - molecule provoking a specific immune response
β—‹ usually foreign to body
β—‹ antigenic determinant site - parts of antigen that stimulates an
immune response
● antibodies - response to antigens
β—‹ created by B cells (made/mature in bone marrow)
β—‹ secreted into body fluid >> humoral immunity
β—‹ T cells (mature in thymus) directly attack the cells >> cell-mediated
● exposed to pathogen, gaining immunity >> active immunity
● gaining antibodies from someone else >> passive immunity
starting the immune response - MHC proteins on cell surface
● proteins created y major histocompatibility complex
● serves as cellular fingerprint >> body can distinguish between its cells +
foreign cells >> self-versus-nonself recognition
● antigen-presenting cells - partially digests microbes, moves their antigens
to the surface
β—‹ lets T cells recognize the antigens
● MHC-I - found on all body cells
● MHC-II - found only on macrophages, B cells, and CD4+ T cells
● interleukin-1 - acts as chemical alarm signal between cells
T Cells - produces cell-mediated immune response
● protects body from infection, cancer
● helper T-cell - detects infection, initiates B/T cell responses
● cytotoxic T-cell - detect/kill infected cells
● inducer T-cell - helps T-cells mature in thymus
● suppressor T-cell - terminates immune response after infection
● cytokines - aka lymphokines
β—‹ regulatory molecules released by antigen-presenting cells
β—‹ interleukin-1 - released by macrophages, stimulates helper T cells
promote macrophages
β—‹ interleukin-2 - released by helper T cells, stimulates production of
cytotoxic T cells
● different MHC proteins >> higher chance for transplant rejection by immune
● interferons currently used to stimulate immune system to fight cancer
B Cells - marks foreign microbe for destruction
● markers activate complement proteins, macrophages, natural killer cells
● binds to free, unprocessed antibodies
● trigger antibody production in plasma cells
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