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Chapter 26

BY 108 Chapter Notes - Chapter 26: Basal Metabolic Rate, Anorexia Nervosa, Blood Sugar


Department
BY-Biology Courses
Course Code
BY 108
Professor
Charles Amser
Chapter
26

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regulation of digestive tract - controlled by nervous/endocrine systems
nervous system stimulates salivary/gastric secretions in response to food
food in stomach >> gastrin secreted >> pepsinogen, HCl secreted (cycle
controlled by negative feedback)
chymes goes into duodenum >> inhibits stomach contractions >> no
additional chyme enters small intestine
enterogastrones - duodenal hormones in blood that controls stomach,
gastric inhibition
liver regulatory functions - can modify absorbed substances from digestive
tract before they get to other part of body
removes toxins, poisons from body
produces most of proteins in blood plasma
edema - when concentration of plasma proteins drops too low
regulation of blood glucose concentration - neurons get energy from glucose
in blood plasma
insulin - stimulates conversion of glucose to glycogen
blood glucose level decrease >> liver secretes glycogen, gets broken
down by glucagon through glycogenolysis to make glucose
gluconeogenesis - makes glucose from other molecules
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energy expenditure - eat food >> provides energy source, raw materials
basal metabolic rate (BMR) - minimum rate of energy use
obesity - having so much fat that it’s unhealthy
regulation of food intake - adipose tissue secretes satiety factor to decrease
appetite
obesity due to lack of sensitivity to protein created by satiety factor?
anorexia nervosa - people starve themselves
bulimia - people gorge themselves, then vomit everything
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essential nutrients - cannot be made by animal, but necessary for health
vitamins - organic substances needed in humans (humans can not
longer made vitamin C)
not enough vitamin C >> scurvy
9 essential amino acids for humans
essential minerals - calcium, phosphorus, inorganic substances
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