Psych Ch 2.doc

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Alexandra Roach

11314Psych Chapter 2 Research MethodsWhy do we learn research methodsTo better understand when and why things happento become better consumers of researchto become better users of researchGoal of Psychological Researchto achieve an accurate understanding of human behaviorhow do we achieve an accurate understandingby using the scientific methodThe Scientific Methodthe systematic procedure of observation and measurementthe scientific method is used todescribe what is happeningpredict when it happenscontrol what causes itexplain why it occursFour Canons of Science CanonsFundamental Principlesdeterminism the world is orderly and all events have meaningful systematic causesempiricism knowledge is based on observationparsimony simpler explanations are preferable to more complex onestestability theories should be testableBasic and Applied Researchbasic research to explain predict and describe the bases of human behaviorapplied research to use basic research to solve real world problemsthe relation between basic and applied research is cyclicalStages of Research ProcessStage 1 generating the research ideaStage 2 refining the research ideaStage 3 testing the research ideaStage 4 sharing your results with othersHow to Generate the Research Ideapersonal experienceobservationprevious researchtwo types of reasoningdeductive reasoning reasoning from general principles to specific instancesinductive reasoning reasoning from specific instances to general principlesDeductive Reasoning1 all men are mortalgeneral principle2 Socrates is a manspecific instance3 therefore Socrates is mortalconclusion drawn from deductive reasoningInductive Reasoning1 Emily and Myka are friends2 Myka enjoys fishing running and rock climbing
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