Psych Ch 6.doc

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Alexandra Roach

2514Psych Chapter 6 LearningLearning Theorythearly 20 centurypsychology utilized nonscientific methodologies introspection Freudian TheoriesJohn B Watson focused on variables that can be directly observed which for humans is behaviorwhat is learningA relatively enduring change in behavior resulting from experience drives virtually all behaviors along with geneticsunderstanding how events are related associatedassociations develop through conditioningconditioning environmental stimuli are connected to behavioral response classical conditioning pavlovian conditioning operant conditioning instrumental conditioningconditioning a process through which environmental stimuli and behavioral responses become connectedBehaviorismhumans and nonhuman animals are born with potential to learn anythingWatson influenced by John Lockes tabula rasa infant gains knowledge from sensory experience environment and its associated effects on animals were the sole determinants of learning thought he could make a doctor or lawyer or artist out of anybody by experience nurture side of the debateLearning Conceptshabituation a decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a nonthreatening stimulussensitization an increase in behavioral response after exposure to a threatening stimulusClassical Conditioningclassical conditioning Pavlovian conditioninga type of learned responsea neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with another stimulus that already produces that responseIvan Pavlovunconditioned response UR a response that does not have to be learned such as a reflexunconditioned stimulus US a stimulus that elicits response only after learning has taken placeconditioned response CR a response to a conditioned stimulusa response that has been learnedExample 1 food unconditioned stimulus causes the dog to salivate unconditioned response the clicking metronome neural stimulus does not cause the dog to salivateExample 2 during conditioning trials the clicking metronome is presented to a dog along with the food neutral stimulusconditioning during critical trials the clicking metronome conditioned stimulus is presented without the food and the dogs response is measuredExample Summary unconditioned stimulus unconditioned responseafter conditioning conditioned stimulus conditioned responseclassical conditioning happens in humans tooacquisition gradual formation of an association between the CS bell and US food
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