Psych Ch 8.doc

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University of California - Davis
Alexandra Roach

21214Psych Chapter 8 Thinking and IntelligenceWhat are ThoughtsCognitive psychology the study of thought based on1 the brain represents information2 thinking is the mental manipulation of these representationscognition the mental activity that includes thinking and the understanding that results from thinkingRepresentations 2 Typesanalogical mental representations that have some of the physical characteristics of objects analogous to the objects usually corresponds to pictures symbolic abstract mental representations that do not correspond to physical features of objects or ideas usually corresponds to words or ideasmental maps combine representation types they combine both our analogical and symbolic representationsConceptconcept a mental representation that groups or categories object events or relations around common themesthere are three different models for how we create concepts from different observed features and examples within the real world1 defining attribute model2 prototype model3 exemplar modeldefining attribution model a category is characterized by a listof features that determine if an object is a member of a category ex what is a catdefining attribute model has three potential problems1 sees membership within a category as allornone2 suggests all of a categorys characteristics are equally important3 sees all members in the category as being equal in category membershipprototype model within each category there is a best example a prototype for that category allows for flexibility in representation of concepts drawback prototypes can be chosen for different reasonsis the prototypethe most common example from categoryA representation that all category members most resembleDoes it represent a combination of typical attributesExemplar model all members of a category are examples exemplars together they form a concept and determine category membership ex dog breeds still a dog even though it only has three legs still a cat even thought it has no furno one concept has a single best representationSchemaschemas cognitive structures that help us perceive organize and process informationtwo reasons to use schemas 1 common situations have constant attributes eg libraries are quiet and filled with books 2 people have specific roles within situational contexts eg librarians behave
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