Reading Guide 4 – Roseberry and Marx Reading 1 - William Roseberry, “Marx and Anthropology,” in
Annual Rev. of Anthropology 26:25-46, 1997.
1. According to Roseberry, what did Marx hope to do with the world other than simply interpret it? (p. 25)
- He hoped to change it!
2. According to Roseberry, should Marx’s analysis being considered a “closed” system or “master
narrative?” Why or why not? (p. 26)
- He considered it to be a more closed mechanical and evolutionistic scheme, but Marx’ thought was a
closed system and he did not see the historical and materialist framework.
3. What are the three “thematic areas” that Roseberry addresses in this article? (p. 26)
4. What are people doing at the beginning of Marx’s analysis? (p. 27)
5. Marx and Engels claim that all intellectual and philosophical human problems are actually related to
what? (p. 27)
6. For Marx, the human essence is what? (p. 27)
7. As Marx and Engels analyzed human history, what two aspects did they focus on? (p. 28)
8. According to Marx, which comes first: what men do (“men in the flesh”) or what men think about what
they do? (p. 29)
9. Based on an analysis provided by Williams, what two types of temporal dimensions does Marx’s writing
deal with? What is the difference between these two? (pp. 30-31)
10. How did Marx characterize class relations? (p. 31)
11. What are the two things on which capitalism depends according to Marx? (pp. 31-32)
12. What are commodities according to Marx? What makes one commodity worth more or less relative to
another according to Marx? (p. 32)
13. What (or who) benefits from the surplus value produced by “labor?” (p. 33) 14. What two types of
values does a commodity have according to Marx? (p. 33) 15. What is a capitalist (or commodity)
economy? (p. 33)16. What type of working conditions have made “work” under capitalism different form
“work” in the past? (p. 34)
17. What unique type of commodity does not exist in nature and only occurs under specific social
conditions? (p. 35)
18. How might labor be manipulated in order to increase surplus value? (p. 36)
19. What is a “disposable industrial reserve army” according to Marx? Does this tend to increase or
decrease the value of labor power? (p. 36)
20. According to Marx, was the state losing or gaining power over time? (pp. 40-41)
Reading 2 – Karl Marx, “The Communist Manifesto” pub. 1848 ( from Marx/Engels Selected Works, Vol.
One, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1969, pp. 98-137) Chapter I
1. The history of all human societies is the history of what? (p. 1)
2. What did modern bourgeois society sprout from? What are the two dominant classes of this society (p.
2) 3. What discovery was essential to the establishment of the world market? (p. 2)
4. What is the role of the modern state? (p. 3)
5. The bourgeoisie has created what type of relationship between man and man? Every occupation has
been reduced to what by the bourgeoisie?
6. What kind of epidemic occurs under bourgeoisie capitalism that would have seemed an absurdity
under previous forms of social production? (p. 5)
7. According to Marx, who will bring about the death of bourgeoisie society? (p. 6)
8. Over time, what will the proletariat develop into? (p. 8)
9. According to Marx, every human society has been based on what sort of antagonism? (p. 9)
10. What is happening to the social position of the modern laborer according to Marx? (p. 9)
11. What does Marx claim is inevitable? (p. 10)
1. How does Marx define a “communist?” What is their aim? (p. 1)
2. What is the “theory of Communists?” (p. 2)
3. According to Marx, bourgeoisie culture means what for the majority of the population? (p. 4)
4. According to Marx, law (jurisprudence) in capitalist society is a reflection of what? (p. 4)
5. Marx claims that in capitalist society, the children of the proletariat are being transformed into what?
6. Marx claims that the proletariat have no nation (p. 6). Why would he say this? (Hint: who does he say
controls the nation? Whose interests are represented in the laws of the nation? )
7. What does Marx claims has been common (or eternal) to all past human ages? (p. 7)
8. According to Marx, once the proletariat has taken power from the bourgeoisie, who will control capital
(production)? (p. 7)
9. According to Marx, after the proletariat has taken power, what will eventually happen to political
power and why will this happen? (p. 8)
1. According to Marx, what is the fate awaiting the petit bourgeoisie (small business owner)? (p. 2)
2. On pages 2 - 5 Marx criticizes various forms of what he call “reactionary socialism.” These are aimed at
reforming capitalism in some way. Why does Marx believe these attempts to reform will fail?
3. According to Marx, why has Conservative or Bourgeoisie Socialism emerged? Is its goal to overthrow
the bourgeoisie? (pp. 5-6)
4. This type of socialism claims that the bourgeoisie exists for the benefit of whom? (p. 6)
5. Does Marx believe that the Critical-Utopian Socialists will be able to create new social laws which will
end the problems caused by bourgeois capitalism? Does he agree with their perspective that violence can
be avoided when trying to create social change? (pp. 6 – 8)
1. What action does Marx urge all working men to take? (p. 2)
Article 3 - “On Education” by Antonio Gramsci
1. Because Gramsci was writing from prison, he would often disguise his plans for a future, ideal
educational system as occurring when? (p. 1) 2. Gramsci would like to see intellectuals emerge from which class? (top of p. 2) 3. For Gramsci, the issue
with education was not a problem of the curricula but rather a problem of what? (p. 2)
4. What type of new school became a threat to the classical school model? (top of p. 3)
5. According to Gramsci, in recent times the form and function of education has moved
from being private to what? (p. 5)
6. Students find a prolongation of and preparation the school life where? (bottom of p. 5)
7. Did Gramsci be lieve that students were more prepared for educational life by being raised in the
city or the countryside? (p. 6)
8. Gramsci argues that schooling should consist of two phases. The first phase is to teach discipline
or conformity. But the second phase should enable the student to do what? (p. 7)
9. What kind of new relation sdoes the “common school” create? (p. 7)
10. What were students taught in the “old primary school?” (p. 7)
11. According to Gramsci, what was the real point of studying ancient Latin & Greek grammar in the
12. Why does Gramsci claim the new (or formative) school is NOT democratic? ( bottom of p. 11 to
top of p. 12)
13. Does Gramsci believe that the new educational system prepares every citizen to “govern?” Does
it create a transcendence of class divisions? (p. 12)
14. What sort of educational advantages does a child from an “intellectual family” possess according
to Gramsci? (p. 13)
Reading Guide – Althusser
“Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes Towards an Investigation),” by Louis Althusser in
Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, Ben Brewster, trans. (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1971),
1. In order for a system (conditions of production) to be maintained in the long term, what two things
must be reproduced? (p. 128)
2. The reproduction of productive forces refers specifically to reproducing what? (p. 130)
3. What allows labor power to reproduce itself? (p. 130)
4. The diverse skills needed by laborers in a capitalist system are usually reproduced where? (p. 132)
5. Aside from learning skills that will be eventually needed for work, what else do childrenlearn at school?
6. Where do the rules come from? (p. 132)
7. What sort of social relations (subjection) are taught in school? (p. 133) 8. According to Marx, what is the floor or infrastructure (the base) of society? (pp. 134-135)
9. Althusser claims that instead of using the base – superstructure metaphor for understanding society,
we could also analyze society using a different perspective. What is the viewpoint Althusser suggests? (p.
10. What kind of apparatus is the state according to Marx and Ahusser? What sort of force does it use?
Whose interest’s does the State serve? (p. 137)
11. In what sense does Althusser claim that class struggle revolves around State power? (p.140)
12. Marx had already defined State power and it (repressive) State Apparatus. What third concept does
Althusser believe should be added to the Marxist discussion of the State? (p. 142)
13. The repressive State Apparatus functions by means of what? (p. 143)
14. What institutions are part of the Ideological State Apparatus according to Althusser? (p.143)
15. Are the Ideological State Apparatuses operating in the public or private domain? (p. 144)
16. Ideological State Apparatuses operate primarily through what? (p. 145)
17. Which class does Althusser claim is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses? (p. 146)
18. What unifies the various Ideological State Apparatuses in a society? ( see #3 on p. 149)
19. In the pre-capitalist period in Europe, what was the dominant Ideological State
Apparatus? (p. 151)
20. According to Althusser, what is the most important Ideological State Apparatus today? (bottom of p.
153 to top of p. 154).
21. According to Althusser, what does ideology represent? (p. 165)
22. How is someone’s ideology expressed? (top of p. 168)
23. Can we be subjects that exist outside of an ideology according to Althusser? (pp. 174-175)
24. How does ideology make us (interpellate us)? In what senese does it gives us identity/subjectivity?
Reading Guide Anthro 30A Week 7 – Gender and Power
Reading 1 - Michelle Rosaldo, “The Uses and Abuses of Anthropology: Reflections on Feminism and
Cross-Cultural Understanding,” in Signs 5:389-417, 1980.
One year after this article was published Michelle Rosaldo would die from an accidental fall from a cliff
while hiking to a village in the Philippines. Afterwards, her husband (also an anthropologist) found her
body lying at the bottom of the cliff.
1. According to Rosaldo, social science has tended to portray gender difference as ultimately the result of
what? (p. 393)
2. Does Rosalso claimed that women are subordinated (constrained or confined) in the exact same way in
every society? (p. 394)
3. According to Rosaldo, what type of work is almost exclusively women’s work and demonstrates male dominance? (bottom of p. 394)
- Work within the home, to feed and care for kids and family. Men have an economic obligation tend to
be less regular and more bound up to extrafamilial sorts of ties.
4. Is male dominance or sexual asymmetry constructed in the same way in every society according to
Rosaldo? (bottom of p. 395)
- It is not constructed the same way in every society, there is a variation of male dominance.
5. What type of “facts” does Rosaldo believe has reproduced male dominance? (top of p. 396)
- Biological facts – women’s role to reproduce and male strength – have operated in a nonnecessary but
universal way to shap and reproduce male dominance.
6. To what “spheres” does Rosaldo claim that sexual asymmetry corresponds? (top of p. 397)
- There is domestic and public spheres;
7. What sort of responsibilities does Rosaldo believe ties women to the domestic sphere? (pp.397-399)
- The sort of responsibilities are that of child care, commensality and the preparation of food.
8. Does Rosaldo believe that gender asymmetry can/should be explained simply as the result of biological
differences between men and women? (pp. 400-401)
- No, it is believed to be understood in political and social terms such as local and specific forms of social
relationship and inequality.
9. Why did the Victorian social scientist, Herbert Spencer, claim that women’s place was in the home? (p.
- He claimed this because he believed that women’s softer hearts would undermine all shows of selfish
interest in the public world.
10. According to Emile Durkheim, which gender was more socialized? (p. 403)
- Emile Durkheim believe that the man is much more socialized.
11. Whose world was assumed to be more likely to change or evolve over time according to 19th century
theorists...men’s or women’s? (p. 404)
12. Which gender was considered responsible for creating and building society? (pp. 404-405)
13. Which of these has the social sciences tended to view as having no history – the public or private
(domestic) sphere? (p. 407)
Note: Michelle Rosaldo is widely considered to be one of the very first ”feminist anthropologists” in the
US. She became well known for developing a conceptual framework analyzing gender by using a
perspective that society was a dichotomy: the public sphere of society was dominated by men and the
domestic or private sphere of society was primarily the domain of women. Although she first theorized
that all human societies were divided up in this manner, she later came to a conclusion that this type of
social dichotomy was a western (and therefore not a universal) social practice. Some prominent
influences on her theoretical perspective include Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud and Claude Levi-Strauss.
14. Does Rosaldo agree that it is appropriate to view the private sphere as being ahistorical
(unchanging/unevolved)? (p. 409)
- No, she believes that one should look into the home and see the women’s point of view.
15. Although women were shown to have provided most of the food in very early human societies, which
gender was claimed to be the most important by social scientists and paleontologists of the 1960s? Why?
16. How did feminist scholars react to the claims mentioned in #15 above? (p. 411)
- They believed that females are more important, this is because not only does the female reproduce and
give birth to an infant. But then the infant need to be taken care of and learn the basic things needed such
17. In what ways does Rosaldo claim that male and female sexuality worked differently in hunter-gatherer
societies? (p. 413) In these societies, which sex was more interested in marriage and why according to
Rosaldo? (p. 413) - Men celebrate their hunting skill while women do not they just are proud to be mothers. The man is
more interested in marriage as married men have a higher ranking than unmarried men.
18. Does Rosaldo believe that women’s and men’s differing roles are adequately explained as being the
result of biological differences? (p. 417)
- No, she believes that women are capable of being hungeter or the capitalist role and figured in fact such
a racism and social class.
Reading 2 - Karen Sacks, “Engels Revisited: Women, the Organization of Production, and Private
Property.” In Women, Culture, and Society. Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere, eds.
(Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1974), pp. 207-222.
1. According to Frederick Engels, the decline of women’s status was associated with what? (p. 208)
- Women’s status declines because of the growth of male-owned private property and the family as the
institution that created them to become wives and wards.
2. According to Engels, what was “communistic” about early human society? (bottom of p. 208 to top of p.
- The household, which was the basic social and economic unit was communistic in that all food stores
held in common and all work was done for the household rather than individual members or couples.
3. Was the household separate from the “public” in early human societies according to Engels? (p. 209)
- Engels said “ In the old communistic household, which embraced numerous couples and their children,
the administration of the household, entrusted to the women, was just as much a public, a socially
necessary industry as the providing of food by the men.
4. What kind of production did Engels claim existed in early human societies? (p. 209)
- Production for use. Private property.
5. According to Engels what was the first type of private property and who owned it? (p. 210)
- The first seemed to be the domestic animals that was owned by man.
6. What sort of relationship did owners of private property have with their households according to
Engels? (p. 211)
- Private property made it’s owner the ruler of the household. Production is exclusively social, outside the
household, and for exchange, leaving women’s work as private maintenance for family use.
7. According to Sacks, when one segment of society can “give” more than another segment within that
society, the receiver is expected to give back by what means? How is labor power involved in this social
equation? (p. 212)
- If one is unable to give back equally in return is he expected to return the favor with service: he becomes
a loyal dependent of client follower. Only this situations gives the party the abilities to harness the labor
power of others for his own ends.
8. What type of society existed among the Mbuti? What about the Lovedu, Pondo and Ganda?
(p. 213) Which of these have “production for use” and which have “production for exchange?”
- Noncapitaist societies
- Mbuti is a band society base on hunting and gathering of vegetable food. Has economies of production
for use. Both sexes perform social labor.
- Lovedu is principally hoe agriculturist. Has economies of production for use. Both sexes perform social
- Pondo is combined with agriculture and livestock. Has beginning of production for exchangecentered
- Ganda is a class society, based subsistence of hoe agriculture. Has production for exchange bulks quite
Note: Karen Sacks uses a Marxist perspective in this article. Marx and Engels essentially claimed that
social power and status is tied to who controls labor. In this article, Sacks argues that the more women’s
labor is co-opted by men as their own private property, the less independence and the social status
women have. Sacks argues that in some African societies, women and men are seen as social equals.
However in other societies women have less than equal social status with men. She compares three
different general types of societies found in Africa. In those societies where women have control over
their own labor and control property they have equal status with men. However, in other societies
analyzed by Sacks, women have lower status than men when they have less control over the products of their own labor.
9. In which society are women’s productive activities not seen as social and viewed as only “domestic?”
- Only in Ganda society
10. In which societies are women considered to be the equal of men (p. 214)
- In Mbuti and Lovedu
11. In which society must a woman have a male representative to act for her? In which society are women
excluded from participation in social events (p. 215)
- Only in Ganda society.
12. Which society has the most restrictions (and punishments) on women who take lovers? (p.216)
- Only in Ganda society
13. In Lovedu society, women may do what seemingly unusual thing with their cattle? (p. 216)
- Women are able to give and receive cattle and may marry a wife with them and in effect they become
14. In Pondo society, men who have helped the king in warfare may be rewarded by receiving what items
from the king? Can women own these same goods in Pondo society? (p. 216)
- Men may receive cattle. The women do not own these goods in Pondo society.?
15. Who owns resources in Mbuti society? (p. 217)
- Mbuti resources are owned by the territorial band as