Reading Guides 6 -7 .docx

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Thomas Douglas

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Reading Guide – Gramsci Article 1 - “The Legacy of Antonio Gramsci” - Joseph A. Buttigieg 1. Gramsci spent 10 and 1/2 years in prison and was a member of the communist party in what country? (pp. 1-3) - Italian communist party 2. Did Gramsci actually write any books while he was in prison? (p. 3) - Gramsci did not write books in prision, he wrote notes 3. While in prison, Gramsci was working on a history of what? (top of p. 4) - History of intelletuals 4. Does Gramsci consider intellectuals to be part of political or civil society? (p. 5) - intellectuals in civil society 5. What important concept did Gramsci develop? (top of p. 8) - Concept of hegemony 6. Although Gramsci urged that it was necessary to study the past in a “disinterested” manner, are Gramsci’s own writing actually “disinterested?” (bottom of p. 14 to top of pg. 15) - Fail to meet the criterion of “disinterest” Article 2 - “On Intellectuals” by Antonio Gramsci This article is rather difficult to read, but the introduction by Hoare and Smith (pp. 1- 2) is very informative and covers most of the key elements in the actual Gamsci article 1. Who does Gramsci believe are potential intellectuals? (p. 1) - All men are potentially intellectuals 2. What two types of intellectuals does Gramsci categorize? How are they different? (p. 1) - Two types: “traditional” professional intellectuals and “organic” intellectuls - “traditional” position in society has a vertain inter-class aura about it but derives ultimately from past and present class relations and conceals an attachment to various history. -“organic” : the thinking and the organixing element of a particular fundamental social class. -Differs: organic are less by their profession, which may be any job characteristics in their class, than by their function in directing the ideas of the class to which they organically belong. 3. What struggle do intellectuals mediate according to Gramsci? (p. 1) 4. Does Gramsci (as well as Lenin) think that social change will be promoted by traditional intellectuals? (p. 1-2) - Yes 5. What is Gramsci’s first question about intellectuals? (p. 2) - Are intellectuals an autonomous and independent social group, or does every social group have its own particular specialised category of intellectuals? 6. What kind of services did intellectuals known as “ecclesiastical” (church leaders) hold a monopoly on during the feudal period? Who were they strongly tied to? (p. 3) - Services include: religious ideology, that is the philosophy and science of the age, together with schools, education, morality, justice, charity, good works, etc. - Strongly tied to the aristocracy (highest class) 7. Although these traditional intellectuals imagined themselves to be independent of the dominant (ruling) class, does Gramsci agree that they are truly autonomous? (pp. 3-4) - No 8. According to Gramsci, what distinguishes the intellectual from the non- intellectual (Hint: this has nothing to do with differences in intelligence according to Gramsci. Bottom of p. 4). - This means that, although one can speak of intellectuals, one cannot speak of non- intellectuals, because non-intellectuals do not exist. 9. What type of instrument creates intellectuals according to Gramsci? (Bottom of p. 5 to top of p. 6). - Schools 10. Is education equally available to all classes? (p. 6) - No, varying distributiong of types of schools over “economic” territory 11. What are the two “superstructural” levels of society according to Gramsci? (p. 6) - the one that can be called “civil society”, that is the ensemble of organisms commonly called “private”, and that of “political society” or “the State”. 12. What is the function of a political party according to Gramsci? (top of p. 8) - 13. Who do the traditional intellectuals unite with according to Gramsci? (top of p. 1l1) - Land-owning class aristocracy Note: The last portion of this article is devoted to showing how various “traditional intellectuals” developed in different nations around the world. Please note that Gramsci views this as a fairly widespread human social phenomenon. This article is also rather difficult to read, but the introduction by Hoare and Smith (pp. 1-2) is very informative and covers most of the key points of the actual article. Article 3 - “On Education” by Antonio Gramsci 1. Because Gramsci was writing from prison, he would often disguise his plans for a future, ideal educational system as occurring when? (p. 1) - by disguising the future (ideal system) as the past in order to criticise the present 2. Gramsci would like to see intellectuals emerge from which class? (top of p. 2) - The working class 3. For Gramsci, the issue with education was not a problem of the curricula but rather a problem of what? (p. 2) - The problem was not one of model curricula but of men, and not just of the men who are actually teachers themselves but of the entire social complex which they express. 4. What type of new school became a threat to the classical school model? (top of p.3) - Technical school, vocational, but not manual 5. According to Gramsci, in recent times the form and function of education has moved from being private to what? (p. 5) - To public 6. Students find a prolongation of and preparation the school life where? (bottom of p. 5) - Children find in their family life a preparation, a prolongation and a completion of school life 7. Did Gramsci believe that students were more prepared for educational life by being raised in the city or the countryside? (p. 6) - Thus city children, by the very fact of living in a city, have already absorbed by the age of six a quantity of notions and attitudes which make their school careers easier, more profitable, and more rapid. 8. Gramsci argues that schooling should consist of two phases. The first phase is to teach discipline or conformity. But the second phase should enable th
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