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Chapter 6

BIO SCI 93 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Nuclear Membrane, Nuclear Lamina, Cell Fractionation


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 93
Professor
WOOD, M., GREEN, K., BUSCIGLIO, J
Chapter
6

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6.1 - Magnification: ratio of an object’s image size to its real size
- Cell fractionation: takes cell apart and separates major organelles and other subcellular
structures from one another.
- Centrifugal force causes components to settle in bottom
- faster= smaller, slower=bigger
- It allows researchers to prepare specific cell components in bulk and identify their
functions
6.2
Comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic
- All cells share basic features
- All are bounded by plasma membrane (selectie barrier)
- Allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the
entire cell.
- All contains chromosomes, which carry genes in form of DNA
- All have ribosomes, tiny complexes that make proteins according to instruction
from the gene.
- Major difference between pro and euk are location of DNA
- Eukaryote: most of DNA are contained in nucleus bounded by double membrane
- Eukaryotic means “true nucleus”
- Prokaryote: DNA is concentrated in region that is not bound called nucleoid
- Before nucleus
6.3
Nucleus
- Line by nuclear membrane, double membrane (bilayer)
- Pore complex: lines each pore and plays important role in the cell by regulating entry
and exits of proteins and RNA
- Nuclear lamina: a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the
nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope.
Ribosomes
- Complexes made of ribosomal RNA and protein, are cellular components that carry out
protein synthesis.
6.4
Endomembrane System
- Includes nuclear envelope, ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various vesicles and
vacuoles, and plasma membranes
Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Exterior network of membranes that it accounts for more than half the total membranes
in eukaryotic cells.
- It consists of network of membranous tubules and sacs called cisternae
- Smooth ER: functions in diverse metabolic processes, which vary with cell type
- Synthesis of proteins, Metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs and
poison, and storage of calcium ions
- ER Lumen: membrane that separates the internal compartment of the ER
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