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Chapter 16

BIO SCI 98 Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: Disulfide, Pyruvic Acid, Deprotonation

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Pavan Kadandale

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Chapter 16
The pKa values will thus change in glycine because of its proton donation,
glycine becomes oxidized but since it is also exposed to the environment with a
higher pH, glycine will ultimately have an increased pH becoming less acidic due
to its deprotonation
With glycine being in a more oxidized state, it now has a more positive
charge and will want to react with other molecules because of its present
An SDS-PAGE gel with 2-mercaptoethanol as the reducing agent was most likely
used to obtain two bands
In an SDS-PAGE gel a polyacylamide gel is used to separate proteins and
uses Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate to give each protein fragment roughly the
same charge per amino acid and to unfold the proteins
This allows the proteins to move through the gel according to size with an
equal charge
The 2-mercaptoethanol is a commonly used reducing agent and breaks
the disulfide bridges of a protein so in the case of insulin the two subunits
are linked together by a S-S bond which means it would run as two bands
The fragments would be placed at one end and would run down the gel
towards the positive anode (since they have a slight negative charge)
Smaller fragments would migrate further down the gel
The SDS-PAGE is important in that it gives us the ability to separate proteins,
and protein subunits, by their mass
Glycolysis is the process responsible for creating G3P
The build up means that there is an inhibitor in an enzyme creating G3P
This enzyme is most likely in the glycerol triophosphatisomerase
This would inhibit the creation of pyruvate which would result in as little as
1 ATP being created
In an in vitro experiment, a scientist is trying to recreate a glycolytic pathway from
glucose to pyruvate. The scientist purifies all of the necessary enzyme,
necessary co-factors, ADP, NAD+, ATP and Pito the pathway. Afterwards, the
scientist mixes all of the parts together and added glucose to it. Then, he
measures the ratio of glucose:pyruvate in mixture over time.
For example, AMP is a positive inhibitor, thus it will increase the level of
production of pyruvate, resulting a decrease in the amount of glucose
For ADP and NAD+, these molecules will be able to limit glycolysis as they
are unable to recovered or regenerate during the in vitro
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