Biology 52 Emphasis on Tropical Forest , Desert, Chaparral , estuaries , intertidal zones, ocean pelagic zone, coral reefs, benthic zone.docx

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University of California - Irvine
Biological Sciences
Nancy Aguilar- Roca

Biology 52 Emphasis on Tropical Forest , Desert, Chaparral , estuaries , intertidal zones, ocean pelagic zone, coral reefs, benthic zone Monday, March 3, 2014 8:59 PM Ecology - The study of the interactions between an organism and it's environment. Concept 52.1 - Earth's Climate Varies by Latitude and Season and is Rapidly Changing Biggest impact on distribution of organisms on lad and sea is climate Climate - long term prevailing weather conditions in a given area based on 4 factor , temperature m precipitation , sunlight and wind Macroclimate- patterns on the global , regional and land scape level Microclimate- very fine localized patterns Global Climate Patterns Determined by input of solar energy and Earth's movement Sun warms --> atmosphere , land , water Warming establishes temperature variations cycles of air and water movement and evaporation of water This causes dramatic latitudinal variations in climate. Regional and Local Effects on Climate Climate patterns can be changed by many factors -seasonal variation -large bodies of water -mountain ranges Seasonality Titled axis of rotation + annual passage around sun cause seasons . Change in wind patters change ocean patterns Upwelling of cold water stimulates the growth of surface dwelling phytoplankton which helps the predators of plankton Bodies of Water Ocean currents can change climates by heating or cooling air mass that passes throuhg Coastal regions are typically wetter than inland areasof same latitude ( because there's like a beach there) Example : cool air from California from the beach supports the coniferous rain forest along the coast, think red woods High specific heat of water means that the temperature around it is more constant During hot day, hot air rises and cooler, more dense air goes underneath it , making a nice breeze Mountains Mountains influence air flow Warm moist air rises and cools over mountain , releases moisture on the other side. Leeward ( the direction against the wind) , cooler dry air descends , this is where deserts form Also affect sunlight reaching an area, thus local temp and rainfall south facing slopes in north hemisphere get more sun light than north facing slopes This influences where species lives In North American Mountain Ranges coniferous forests grow on cooler north facing slopes, drought resistant plants live on the south facing slopes Every 1000 m up is 6 c temperature drop 1000m up is like 880 Km increase of latitude Micro Climate Many features in the environment influence microclimate by casting shade , altering evaporation from soil , or changing wind pattern. Forest trees keep the climate below constantly shady So when the area is cleared there are more temperature extremes Abiotic - non living , factors the chemical and physical attributes , such as temperature, light , water and nutrients Biotic -living factors Global Climate Change Climate differences change where certain plants and animals are found Receeding areas of cold, means tree species seeds have to be able to move northward as well, can they keep up? Concept 52.2 The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance Biomes - major life zone characterized by vegetation
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