*Molecular Bio SG.pdf

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Biological Sciences
M.G Cumsky

1Molecular Biology Study Guide TABLE OF CONTENTSDNA IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL CENTRAL DOGMA2STRUCTURE OF DNA3EUKARYOTIC DNA3DNA REPLICATION4DNA REPLICATION PROTEINS4DNA REPLICATION INITIATION AND TERMINATION5TYPES OF DNACHROMOSOMAL MUTATIONS6DNA REPAIR PATHWAYS8 RECOMBINATION8TRANSPOSITION9EPIGENETICS9TRANSCRIPTION BASICS10TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION11 NONCODING RNAS11PROKARYOTIC TRANSCRIPTION12 EUKARYOTIC TRANSCRIPTION13 PROKARYOTIC TRANSLATION15EUKARYOTIC TRANSLATION15COMPLEX EUKARYOTIC RXN15RNA PROCESSING15 tRNA16RIBOSOMES AND tRNA17 PROTEIN SYNTHESIS172 IDNA is the Genetic Material Central Dogma AuxotrophA mutant yeast strain is a leucine auxotroph Mutant is incapable of synthesizing leucine not present in environment Mutant will not grow if leucine isMutant has a nonfunctional protein in the leucine synthesis pathway Central Dogma Protein structure is dictated by sequence of nucleotides in DNA Strands of a DNA helix are used to replicate more DNA helicesRNA is responsible for bridging the nucleus and the cytoplasm Proteins are produced through process known as translation DNA Mutations and Disease The following have a negative consequence in terms of disease Mutation that prevents folding of CFTR protein Mutant CCR protein incapable of binding to the AIDS virusMutation in the hemoglobin gene that results in hemoglobin aggregation The follow does not have a negative consequence A decrease in CAG repeats in the HTT gene How do mutations affect an organism Cause development of diseasecausing allele Cause development of more beneficial allele May have no noticeable effectInflammation damages cells and causes cell aging Beadle and Tatum Experiments Supplemented media permit growth of auxotrophic strains of NeurosporaXirradiation can induce mutations Auxotrophs fail to grow on minimal media First round of screening was to determine whether any auxotrophic mutants had been generated Conclusion A given Neurospora mutant can be deficient in either a vitamin synthesis pathway or an AA synthesis pathway but not in both Conclusion 2 Each mutant mold lacked a specific enzyme therefore gene carry information for making proteins Watson and Crick Experiment Discovered the structure of DNA Helped explain how cells divide to form identical daughter cellsGriffithAvery ExperimentDemonstrated genetic transformationHeat killed virulent strain mixed with a live nonvirulent strain was capable of killing a mouse Adding only DNA from a virulent bacteria strain to a live nonvirulent bacteria strain was capable of killing a mouse Types of RNA
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