Fundamentals H: Chemical Equations

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Ramesh D Arasasingham

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Chemical Principles: The Quest for Insight by Atkins and Jones 5 Edition by Gigi :) Fundamentals Study Guide: Section H Chemical Equations Key Concepts:  Writing, balancing, and labeling chemical equations on the basis of a given sentence.  Understand stoichiometric coefficients  chemical reaction – the process by which a substance is converted into another substance, also called a chemical change ◦ reactants (starting material) –> products (final result) ◦ Example: 1 atom carbon + 2 atoms oxygen –> carbon dioxide ▪ C + O2 –> CO2 (skeletal equation)  reagent – a substance used in chemical reactions to detect, produce, or examine other substances  skeletal equation – using chemical formulas (C for carbon, O for oxygen, ect.) to show a reaction (qualitative summary)  Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction, they only change partners  law of conservation of mass – the total mass of a substance remains constant in a chemical change  balanced or chemical equation – number of atoms for each element and total charge are equal for both reactants and products ◦ Example: Hg + Br2 → Hg2Br2 (equation is not balanced; 1 mercury atom on left, 2 on right) ▪ to balance, multiply unbalanced atom by stoichiometric coef
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