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Chapter 17

CHEM 1C Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Lewis Acids And Bases, Rice Chart, Ion


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1C
Professor
Eric Potma
Chapter
17

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Chapter 17: Acids and Bases
17.1 Batman’s Basic Blunder
17.2 The Nature of Acids and Bases
Acids have sour taste, ability to dissolve many metals, turn blue litmus paper red, neutralize bases
Carboxylic acid = contains the following grouping of atoms
Bases have a bitter taste, a slipper feel, turn red litmus paper blue, neutralize acids
Alkaloids = organic bases found in plants that are often poisonous
17.3 Definitions of Acids and Bases
oThe Arrhenius Definition
Acid = A substance that produces H+ ions in an aqueous solution
Base = A substance that produces OH- ions in aqueous solution
Hydronium ion = H3O+
Strong acid = completely ionizes in solution
Weak acid = only partially ionizes
Strong base = one that completely dissociates in solution (analogous to strong acid)
Weak base = analogous to a weak acid
oThe Bronsted-Lowry Definition
BrØnsted-Lowry definition = focuses on transfer of H+ ions in an acid-base reaction
Acid – Proton (H+ ion) donor
Base Proton (H+ ion) acceptor
Conjugate acid-base pair = two substances related to each other by the transfer of a proton\
Conjugate acid = is any base to which a proton has been added
Conjugate base = any acid from which a proton has been removed
17.4 Acid Strength and Molecular Structure
- explore how the structure of a molecule affects its acidity
oBinary Acids
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Ease by which hydrogen is donated depends on bond polarity and strength of bond
Bond Polarity
H-Y bond must be polarized with the hydrogen atom as the positive pole = acidic
Partial positive charge on hydrogen makes it easier for hydrogen to be lost as H+ ions
Bond Strength
Stronger the bond the weaker the acid.
The Combined Effect of Bond Polarity and Bond Strength
Hydrides become more acidic from left to right and top to bottom
oOxyacids
Ease at which hydrogen in an oxyacid depends on electronegativity of Y and # of number of
oxygen atoms attached to element Y
The Electronegativity of Y
More electronegative element Y is more acidic the oxyacid is
The Number of Oxygen Atoms Bonded to Y
Greater number of oxygen atoms the greater the acidity
17.5 Acid Strength and the Acid Ionization Constant (Ka)
Range of acid strength is continuous but categories of strong and weak are useful
oStrong Acids
Monoprotic acids = acids containing only one ionizable proton
Diprotic acid = an acid containing two ionizable protons
oWeak Acids
Triprotic = three ionizable protons
oThe Acid Ionization Constant (Ka)
Acid ionization constant (Ka) = equilibrium constant for the ionization reaction of the weak acid
Ionization constants for weak acids are relatively small, but vary in magnitude
17.6 Autoionization of Water and pH
Water is amphoteric = can act as either an acid or a base
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