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Chapter 1

CRM/LAW C118 Chapter 1: c118textbookch1Premium

7 pages95 viewsWinter 2019

Department
Criminology, Law and Society
Course Code
CRM/LAW C118
Professor
Kirk Williams
Chapter
1

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Jessica Mangold
C118 Domestic Violence
Professor Williams
Textbook Notes
Week 1
Chapter 1 History & Definitions of Intimate Violence & Maltreatment
Introduction
- women, children, & elderly more likely to be victimized at home than on streets of
America’s most dangerous cities
- violence & maltreatment in intimate relationships (VMIR) is pervasive & can impact
everyone yet remains largely hidden from public view
- Ray Rice (NFL player) arrested in 2014 for domestic violence & got 2 game suspension
for physical altercation with fiancé caught on camera
- many openly criticized the NFL’s decision -> seemed more worried about
steroid use than intimate partner violence
- intimate partner violence (IPV) = any threatened or completed acts of
physical, sexual, or psychological abuse committed by a spouse, ex-spouse, or
current or former boyfriend or girlfriend
- another video surfaced showing him punching her in elevator -> suspended
indefinitely & released by Baltimore Ravens
- NFL commissioner defended original 2 game suspension anyway
- Adrian Peterson (NFL player) arrested after physically assaulting is 4 year old son
- reports suggested that he beat his son with tree branch until he bled
- said had disciplined his son like he was as a child
- in this case NFL commission wrote scathing letter to Peterson after he was
suspended for remainder of 2014 season
- both cases illustrate evolving social recognition of interpersonal violence as social
problem & role societal reactions play
- social construction = perspective that holds that societal reactions to a social
condition are central to the process of that condition’s redefinition as a social
problem
- social problems negotiated with variety of claims makers weighing in
- claims makers = interest groups & individuals who actively engage in the
process of raising awareness & concern about a particular social condition
- NFL commissioner defended decision in Rice case but after facing criticism had
different reaction in Peterson case
- Peterson defended the use of corporal punishment in his case
- corporal punishment = form of punishment in which physical force is used &
intended to cause some degree of pain or discomfort in order to affect a child’s
behavior
- most Americans agree that using such disciplinary techniques are necessary
- question of whether there should have been larger consequences for Rice & Peterson
- charges dropped against Rice & Peterson pled no contest to misdemeanor charge
- during Rice incident -> “a gentleman never hits a woman” was perpetuated
- hitting between partners is never an acceptable option
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- Palmer’s attempt to slap Rice is relevant to discussion
Estimating the Scope of the Problem
- child sexual abuse = refers to “any or attempted sexual act, sexual contact with, or
exploitation of a child”
- frustrating & confusing to try to find out the prevalence
- Child Protective Services = major state-level system of intervention for cases
of child abuse & neglect
- CPS received about 3.3 million reports of neglect & abuse -> 900,000
substantiated -> 72,000 for sexual abuse -> sexual abuse rate of .7 per 100,000
- for some crimes almost all cases are reported but VMIR often not
- most vulnerable victims often cannot speak for themselves -> unreported abuse
- dark figure = the numerical gap between the VMIR that is actually committed
in a society & the VMIR that is officially recognized & reported
- homicide has small dark figure while VMIR has huge one
- some concepts can be ambiguous & difficult to measure in the population
- child neglect = form of child maltreatment described as deficits in meeting a
child’s basic needs, including basic needs in the broad categories of physical,
emotional, medical, & educational needs
- elder abuse = any maltreatment or neglect of a person aged 60 or older by a
caregiver or another person in a trust relationship with the elder
- rape = nonconsensual attempted or completed penetration of the vagina or anus
with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person
- can be hard to operationalize the variable & in case of child abuse cannot talk to
children & would not get information from abusive guardians
- looking at self-reports -> wildly varying estimates of prevalence of child sexual
abuse
- polyvictimization = experiencing two or more types of abuse (e.g. physical violence,
sexual violence, psychological abuse, & stalking)
- women, children, & the elderly are especially vulnerable in intimate
relationships
Intimate Violence & Maltreatment as a Social Construction
- United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child = adopted in 1989;
affirms the inherent dignity & inalienable rights of all members of the human family,
including children
- all children should be protected from “physical or mental violence, injury or
abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation including
sexual abuse while in the case of parent(s), legal guardian(s), or any other person
who has the care of the child”
- UN’s Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women = adopted in
1944; calls for :universal application to women of the rights & principles with regard to
equality, security, liberty, integrity, & dignity of all human beings”
- condemns any “act of gender-based violence that results in, or its likely to result
in physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women, including
threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring
in public or private life”
- documents by UN reject cultural relativism
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