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EDUC 108 (3)
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Chapter 5

EDUC 108 Chapter 5: EDU 108 Ch. 5 Notes
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Department
Education
Course
EDUC 108
Professor
Hansen
Semester
Winter

Description
GENDER: Adolescents and Gender in Traditional Cultures: -The gender requirements for both males and females tend to intensify at adolescence and to allow for very little deviation from the norm -In cultures where socialization is narrow, it tends to be narrowest of all with regard to gender expectations From Girl to Woman: -girls in traditional cultures typically work alongside their mothers from an early age -by adolescence, girls typically work alongside their mothers as near-equal partners -by adolescence, daughters have learned the skills involved in child care and running a household -important gender difference: boys typically have less contact with their families and considerably more contact with their peers than they did before adolescence -socialization stays narrow or becomes even narrower for girls -girls are subject to authority -the budding of sexuality is more likely to be tightly restricted From Boy to Man: -manhood is something that has to be achieved, whereas girls reach womanhood inevitably (mainly through biological changes) -adolescent boys have no comparable biological marker for readiness for manhood -in most cultures, an adolescent boy must demonstrate 3 capacities before he can be considered a man -provide: demonstrate he has developed skills that are economically useful and that will enable him to support a wife/ kids -protect: show that he can contribute to the protection of his people -procreate: gain some degree of sexual experience before marriage -involves not just the acquisition of specific skills in these 3 areas, but also the development of certain character qualities that accompany these skills to make them useful and effective Adolescents and Gender in American History: From Girl to Woman: -adolescent girls growing up in the 18th/19th century were narrowly constricted in terms of the occupational roles they were allowed to study/ enter -constricted by cultural perceptions of females as fragile and innocent -constricted in sexuality -constricted in physical appearance - irrational body views From Boy to Man: -communal manhood: the norm of manhood in 17th/18th century; the focus of gender expectations for adolescent boys was on preparing to assume adult male role responsibilities in work/ marriage -self-made manhood: norm of manhood during the 19th century; males were increasingly expected to become independent from their families in adolescence and emerging adulthood -passionate manhood: norm of manhood during the 20th century; self-expression and self-enjoyment replaced self-control and self-denial as the paramount virtues males should learn in the course of becoming a man The Gender Intensification Hypothesis: -psychological and behavioral differences between males and females become more pronounced in the transition from childhood to adolescence because of intensified socialization pressures to conform to culturally prescribed gender roles -results in increased differences between males and females as adolescence progresses -intensity of
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