H40C W1 Study Guide .doc

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Emily Rosenberg

WEEK 1: STUDY GUIDE Overall themes of course: • People (Monday classes) o Who are “Americans?”: Immigration, mobility, race/ethnicity, gender • Money (Wednesday classes) o How have Americans lived?: The changing modes of production and consumption; wealth and poverty • Power (Friday classes) o How have Americans governed?: The growth of federal government; rise of US power in world Specific topics of this week: Introduction to the course Overview of U.S. in early 1900s Reading/Writing assignment for this week: Assignment: Read LEP, Chapt. 20 Section: Introduction to how Sections will be run. Study guide: This provides you with guidance on what you should be learning from the textbook and the lectures. I. IDENTIFICATIONS: (be able to identify each term in a sentence and then provide a few sentences describing its SIGNIFICANCE in terms of the themes of the “overall themes of the course,” given above. These terms and their significance come from both book and lecture. Triangle Shirtwaist Company • What: a New York city garment factory; a building with no fire escapes; owned by Issac Harris and Max Blanck; fire in 1911; employed mainly immigrant women and children; no minimum wage or maximum hours; bad working conditions • Why: fire was a catalyst for change for better working conditions such as minimum wage and maximum hours; part of the progressive movement; there were no fire escapes and an exit was locked Political machines • What: also called machine “bosses”; created to ensure success in elections in 1900; used a variety of legal and illegal means to bring victory on Election Day; wont the loyalty of urban voters – esp. immigrants – by providing poor neighborhoods with paved roads and sewer systems; helped new immigrants find jobs; “King Richard” Crocker in New York; early 1900s • Why: Both positive and negative force in urban life; disregarded election laws; many immigrants valued them for providing social welfare services and created opportunity for upwards mobility “Combine” farming machine • What: machine that harvests grain crops and combines three separate operations comprising harvesting into a single process • Why: one of the most economically important saving inventions; allowed small population to be engaged in agriculture; production capacity shot up; price of food was lowered; revolutionized farming and agriculture bc it increased proficiency of the plow Wright Brothers (Orville and Wilbur) • What: two brothers that invented and built the world’s first successful airplane in 1903; built the glider kite in 1900 • Why: changed the way people saw the world; we were able to transport goods across seas much faster; world became more interconnected; new mode of transportation “Jim Crow” laws • What: state and local racial segregation in public facilities of all kinds; 1876 to 1965; Plessy v. Ferguson – Supreme Court ruled that Jim Crow was constitutional as long as the separate facilities for blacks were equal; Civil Rights; deprived the right of blacks to vote through implementation of literary tests which were hard to pass and ridden in impossible questions; poll taxes prevented people of lower economic states to vote because they couldn’t afford to pay tax; Lynch law spread terror amongst those who wanted to resist these laws; Act of 1875 tried to break Jim Crow; abolitionists – Booker T. Washington • Why: tremendous setback for American equality; blacks were discriminated in the workforce, public schools, buses; set out the message that whites were more superior than blacks Telephone th • What: invented by Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson; late 19 century; available in the 1900s but in 1920s their sales reached new levels; • Why: increased the speed of communication; the start of the consumer society; revolutionized communication Indian Boarding Schools • What: established in the US during the late 19 and early 20 century; educated Native American children and youth according to American standards; had to cut their hair; forbidden to speak their native language; their traditional names were replaced by American names • Why: Was there to educate the Native Americans about the European Culture Buffalo killing • What: 1870s massive killings of buffalo on the Great Plains; 1600 was 70 million, 1900 was only 1,000 • Why: Defeated the native Americans Henry Ford and Ford Motor Company • What: Henry Ford – pioneer in automobile manufacturing; 1908 – Model T was the first automobile; Model T was reliable and affordable; invented the assembly line for faster production; • Why: Ford helped the country become a nation of motorists; idea of mass production Philippine War of 1898-1902 • What: Philippines wanted to gain independence following annexation by the US • Why: Question
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