H40C Ch 1-3 IDs.docx

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Emily Rosenberg

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Triangle Shirtwaist Company • What: a New York city garment factory; a building with no fire escapes; owned by Issac Harris and Max Blanck; fire in 1911; employed mainly immigrant women and children; no minimum wage or maximum hours; bad working conditions • Why: fire was a catalyst for change for better working conditions such as minimum wage and maximum hours; part of the progressive movement; there were no fire escapes and an exit was locked Political machines • What: also called machine “bosses”; created to ensure success in elections in 1900; used a variety of legal and illegal means to bring victory on Election Day; wont the loyalty of urban voters – esp. immigrants – by providing poor neighborhoods with paved roads and sewer systems; helped new immigrants find jobs; “King Richard” Crocker in New York; early 1900s • Why: Both positive and negative force in urban life; disregarded election laws; many immigrants valued them for providing social welfare services and created opportunity for upwards mobility “Combine” farming machine • What: machine that harvests grain crops and combines three separate operations comprising harvesting into a single process • Why: one of the most economically important saving inventions; allowed small population to be engaged in agriculture; production capacity shot up; price of food was lowered; revolutionized farming and agriculture bc it increased proficiency of the plow Wright Brothers (Orville and Wilbur) • What: two brothers that invented and built the world’s first successful airplane in 1903; built the glider kite in 1900 • Why: changed the way people saw the world; we were able to transport goods across seas much faster; world became more interconnected; new mode of transportation “Jim Crow” laws • What: state and local racial segregation in public facilities of all kinds; 1876 to 1965; Plessy v. Ferguson – Supreme Court ruled that Jim Crow was constitutional as long as the separate facilities for blacks were equal; Civil Rights; deprived the right of blacks to vote through implementation of literary tests which were hard to pass and ridden in impossible questions; poll taxes prevented people of lower economic states to vote because they couldn’t afford to pay tax; Lynch law spread terror amongst those who wanted to resist these laws; Act of 1875 tried to break Jim Crow; abolitionists – Booker T. Washington • Why: tremendous setback for American equality; blacks were discriminated in the workforce, public schools, buses; set out the message that whites were more superior than blacks Telephone • What: invented by Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson; late 19 century; available in the 1900s but in 1920s their sales reached new levels; • Why: increased the speed of communication; the start of the consumer society; revolutionized communication Indian Boarding Schools th th • What: established in the US during the late 19 and early 20 century; educated Native American children and youth according to American standards; had to cut their hair; forbidden to speak their native language; their traditional names were replaced by American names • Why: Was there to educate the Native Americans about the European Culture Buffalo killing • What: 1870s massive killings of buffalo on the Great Plains; 1600 was 70 million, 1900 was only 1,000 • Why: Defeated the native Americans Henry Ford and Ford Motor Company • What: Henry Ford – pioneer in automobile manufacturing; 1908 – Model T was the first automobile; Model T was reliable and affordable; invented the assembly line for faster production; • Why: Ford helped the country become a nation of motorists; idea of mass production Philippine War of 1898-1902 • What: Philippines wanted to gain independence following annexation by the US • Why: Questioned if US should be an empire; debates over imperialism Assassination of William McKinley • What: Committed in Buffalo, New York during a visit to the Pan American o September 14, 1901 o Standing at the reception line to accept hand shakes o 28 year old man Leon Czolgosz with a handkerchief in right hand o McKinley pulled hands out for a handshake when Leon pulled the handkerchief away revealing a pistol o Shot McKinley two times. Once in the chest, which bounced off, second to the stomach o Czolgosz was an anarchist and very inflamed by the way the Slavic miners were treated during the Coal Strike of 1897 • Why: Americans feared immigrants bc assassin was an anarchist Allowed Teddy Roosevelt to become president bc he was vice president - he broke Steel and Railroad Trust - Built a foundation for the US Navy which would fight in WWII Cultural pluralism • What: doctrine developed by Kallen and Locke; More than one cultural and race in the US; different cultures or ethnic groups live together in harmony and mutual respect, each retaining cultural identity; celebrated the diversity of people; forced cultural assimilation and notion of melting pot • Why: Dawes Act of 1934 that gave Indians the right to govern themselves, embraced the wave of new immigrants and showed another perspective towards immigrants So-called “New Immigration” • What: Mostly from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe; Immigrated to East Coast such as Ellis Island in New York; 1880-1920s; judged by how they look • Why: Considered non-white and inferior; Racism in progressive era; Source of cheap labor; Drive the transportation growth; Cultural Pluralism supporters embraced them and Progressives saw them as a threat to the working wage and opposed their arrival Muckrakers • What: American journalists, novelists, and critics who tried to uncover the abuses of business and political corruption, popular muckraker – Upton Sinclair; exposed the horrors of meat-packaging industry • Why: they were the voices for those who wanted change and reform; uncovered the corrupt government; exposed the problems in our large corporations; led to social reforms of government involvement in companies Progressive movement • What: “The Gilded Age”; period of social activism and political reform in the US from 1890s to 1920s; purification of the government; individual don’t care about the larger social good; economic inequality; tried to eliminate corruption by exposing political machines; women’s suffrage promoted; main concerns were a) greater government regulation of new corporate industrial order b) elimination of corruption • Why: led to many government reforms; Progressive Party started by Teddy Roosevelt; greater regulation of corporate companies; health and safety was regulated; working conditions were regulated; Federal Reserve Act of 1913 Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 • What: signed by President Theodore Roosevelt, limited to only food moving in interstate commerce; drugs had to list any of the ten ingredients that were deemed dangerous on the product label if they were not present; goods found in legislation were subject to seizure • Why: first series of consumer protection laws enacted by the Federal Government; protected the public against dangers in food; response to the muckrakers that exposed the horrors of food industry Child labor laws • What: companies hired immigrant children at very young ages for a source of cheap labor; in case of Triangle Factory Fire many young girls died • Why: lead to child labor laws; Supreme Court declared them unconstitutional for several decades because they believed they shouldn’t be able to regulate businesses Lewis Hine • What: progressive; American sociologist and photographer; used his camera for social reform; photo of child standing in the mill; exposed many young children working in mills and factories at ages as young as 5 years • Why: his photos were instrumental in changing the child labor laws in the US Jane Addams • What: pioneer social worker feminist; internationalist; reformer of Progressive Era; fought for issues of mothers such as needs of children, public health; and world peace; founded the Hull House in Chicago in 1889; drafted pieces of progressive legislation • Why: Hull House provided services for immigrants and poor population in Chicago area; prominent social reformer “progressive” taxation • What: income tax law passed after the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act of 1913 that reduced tariff barriers; increased tax on the high income and lowered taxes for lower incomes; Wealth Tax Act increased rates on wealthy from 59 to 75 percent • Why: answered progressives pledge to reduce power and privileges of the wealthy Americans by requiring them to pay taxes on a greater percentage of their incomes than the poor “Jim Crow” laws • What: state and local racial segregation in public facilities of all kinds; 1876 to 1965; Plessy v. Ferguson – Supreme Court ruled that Jim Crow was constitutional as long as the separate facilities for blacks were equal; Civil Rights Act of 1875 tried to break Jim Crow; abolitionists – Booker T. Washington • Why: tremendous setback for American equality; blacks were discriminated in the workforce, public schools, buses; set out the message that whites were more superior than blacks Conservation movement • What: movement to preserve America’s wildlife, wild lands, and other natural resources from 1890-1920; Roosevelt passed legislation to conserve national parks and worked with John Muir •
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