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Chapter 1

HISTORY 21B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Saint-Domingue, Code Noir, Middle Passage

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Austin Maldanado
Professor Coller
History 21 B
Course Code 26550
How did Slavery relate to the Rise of Capitalism?
The New Atlantic Slavery
Spanish and portuguese empires declining
Dutch east india company spreading from asia into the caribbean
France and britain entering as major powers
Purchase the asiento from spain
Become the major slave traders
French king louis xiv creates the “code noir” (black code) to govern the colonies
Expanding production of sugar, cotton, tobacco, coffee
The middle passage
Ships sail from the “slave ports” (nantes, bordeaux, liverpool, bristol)
Take cloth and goods to west african coast
Purchase slaves and take “middle passage” across atlantic
Sell slaves in caribbean or american colonies
The caribbean
1625 - barbados becomes english colony
First french settlement at St Christopher
1635 - french colonies of martinique and guadeloupe
1655 - english settlement on jamaica
1697 - one third of hispaniola ceded to french - colony of saint domingue (haiti)
Many other islands
The sugar islands
Began with cotton and tobacco
Switched to cane - huge profits - sugar, rum, molasses
Guadeloupe from 11,000 to 1700 to 50,000 in 1750
Saint domingue most wealth producing per km in world
Desperate need for labor
Seven years war - france surrendered canada to keep caribbean islands
After haitian independence, cuba becomes largest sugar producer
Slave life
They were about a hundred men and women of different ages, all occupied in
digging ditches in a cane-field, the majority of them naked or covered with rags
The sun shone down with full force on their heads
Sweat rolled from all parts of their bodies
Their limbs, weighed down by the heat, fatigued with the weight of their picks
and by the resistance of the clayey soil baked hard enough to break their
implements, strained themselves to overcome every obstacle
A mournful silence reigned
Exhaustion was stamped on every face, but the hour of rest had not yet come
The pitiless eye of the manager patrolled the gang and several foremen armed
with long whips moved periodically between them, giving stinging blows to all
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