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Chapter 10

MGMT 1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Organizational Culture, Absenteeism, Expectancy Theory


Department
Management
Course Code
MGMT 1
Professor
Thomas Eppel
Chapter
10

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CHAPTER 10: MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES
THE VALUE OF MOTIVATION
-Engagement: describe employees’ level of motivation, passion, commitment
-Intrinsic reward: personal satisfaction you feel when you perform well & complete goals
- Belief that your work makes significant contribution to organization
-Extrinsic reward: given to you by someone else as recognition for good work
- Pay increases, praise, promotions
FREDERICK TAYLOR: THE FATHER OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
- Goal: increase worker productivity to benefit both firm & worker
-Solution: scientifically study the most efficient ways to do things, determine “best way”,
& teach people those methods scientific management
- 3 elements: time, method, rules of work
- Tools: observation & stopwatch
-Time-motion studies: studies of tasks performed in a job & time needed for each
- Efficiency: standard for setting goals
-Frank and Lillian Gilbreth: principle of motion economy: showing how every job could be
broken into series of elementary motions called therblig
- Scientific management viewed people largely as machines that needed to be properly
programmed
- Little concern do psych or human aspects of work
- Workers perform high level if motivated
ELTON MAYO AND THE HAWTHORNE STUDIES
- Test degree of lighting associated with optimum productivity
- The lighting did not matter for productivity went up each time
- Concluded:
- Workers in test room thought of themselves as social group
- Felt special & worked hard to stay in group
- Were included in planning experiments. Ideas were respected & felt engaged in
managerial decision making
- Enjoyed atmosphere of room & additional pay
-Hawthorne effect: people’s tendency to behave differently when they know they’re being
studied
- Study human motivation & managerial styles higher productivity
MOTIVATION AND MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
- Psychological needs: basic survival needs
- Safety needs: need to feel secure at work & home
- Social needs: need to feel loved, accepted, part of group
- Esteem needs: need for recognition from others, self-respect, sense of status

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- Self-actualization needs: need to develop to one’s fullest potential
- When one need is satisfied higher-level need emerges & motivates us
HERZBERG’S MOTIVATING FACTORS
- What managers can do with job itself to motivate employees
- Asked workers to rank various job-related factors in order of importance relative to
motivation: what creates enthusiasm for workers & makes them work to full potential?
- 1. Sense of achievement
- 2. Earned recognition
- 3. Interest in work itself
- 4. Opportunity for growth
- 5. Opportunity for advancement
- 6. Importance of responsibility
- 7. Peer & group relationships
- 8. Pay
- 9-14. Etc
- Factors with most votes clustered around job content: Workers feel they contribute to
company, earn recognition, feel job is important, want responsibility
- Did not consider factors related to job environment to be motivators
- I.e. pay, job security dissatisfaction, but presence did not motivate employees
to work harder
-Motivators: certain factors made employees productive & gave satisfaction
-Hygiene factors: (maintenance factors): job environment & cause dissatisfaction if
missing
- Best way to motivate: make jobs interesting, help them achieve their objectives,
recognize achievement through advancement, added responsibility
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MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND THEORY Y
THEORY X
- Assumptions
- Average person dislikes work & will avoid it if possible
- Forced, controlled, directed, threatened with punishment to make them put forth
effort to achieve goals
- Prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, relatively little ambition,
wants security
- Primary motivators: fear & punishment
- Natural consequence: manager who is busy & watches people closely, telling what and
how to do
- Form of punishment for bad work > reward for good
THEORY Y
- Assumptions
- Most people like work
- Naturally work towards goals to which they committed
- Depth of person’s commitment to goals depends on perceived rewards for
achieving them
- Accept & seek responsibility
- Capable of using high degree of imagination, creativity, cleverness to solve
problems
- Average person’s intellectual potential partially realized
- Motivated by rewards
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