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Chapter 9-14

MGMT 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9-14: Energizer, Helping Behavior, Knowledge Worker

Course Code
MGMT 102
Jennifer Hite

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MGMT 102 - Final Exam Review
Personality refers to the structures and propensities inside people that explain their
characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior.
Personality traits are a function of both your genes & environment
A review of several different twin studies concludes that gene have a significant impact on people’s Big
Five profile. 49% variation in extraversion acccounted by genetic differences
Traits are defined as recurring regularities or trends in people’s responses to their environment.
Cultural values - shared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in a given
Example - traditional, informal, risk averse, assertive
Can influence development of people's personality traits
Big Five, those five personality dimensions include conscientiousness, agreeableness,
neuroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion.
The results of the study showed that the interviewers’ ratings of extraversion, agreeableness,
and openness were fairly consistent with the students’ own ratings, as well as their friends’
ratings. In contrast, interviewers’ ratings of conscientiousness and neuroticism were only
weakly related to the students’ and friends’ ratings. This study therefore shows that interviewers
are unable to gauge the two Big Five dimensions that are most highly related to job
Conscientious employees prioritize accomplishment striving, which reflects a strong desire to
accomplish task-related goals as a means of expressing personality.
Dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking, presevering
Better at managing stress
Higher levels of organizational commitment, citizenship behavior, etc.
The figure reveals thatconscientiousness affects job performance. Of the Big
Five, conscientiousness has the strongest effect on task performance,85 partly because
conscientious employees have higher levels of motivation than other employees.86
Agreeable people prioritize communion striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain
acceptance in personal relationships as a means of expressing personality.
kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, courteous, warm
Of the Big Five, extraversion is the easiest to judge in zero acquaintance situationssituations
in which two people have only just met.
Talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, dominant
Happier with jobs
Typically remains quite stable throughout a person's life & OPENNESS --> MOST
Other 3 change a lot throughout life
Extraverted people prioritize status striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain
power and influence within a social structure as a means of expressing personality.
Extraverted employees tend to be high in what’s called positive affectivitya
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MGMT 102 - Final Exam Review
dispositional tendency to experience pleasant, engaging moods such as enthusiasm,
excitement, and elation.
Neuroticism is synonymous with negative affectivitya dispositional tendency to experience
unpleasant moods such as hostility, nervousness, and annoyance
2nd most important in perspective of job performance --> benefiit if calm, steady, secure
Emotional stability or remotional adjustment
Lower levels job satisfaction
Nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, jealous, unstable
Specifically, neuroticism is associated with a differential exposure to stressors,
meaning that neurotic people are more likely to appraise day-to-day situations as
stressful (and therefore feel like they are exposed to stressors more frequently).
Neuroticism is also associated with a differential reactivity to stressors, meaning that
neurotic people are less likely to believe they can cope with the stressors that they
Neuroticism is also strongly related to locus of control, which reflects whether people
attribute the causes of events to themselves or to the external environment.
Neurotic people tend to hold an external locus of control, meaning that they often
believe that the events that occur around them are driven by luck, chance, or fate.
Less neurotic people tend to hold an internal locus of control, meaning that they believe
that their own behavior dictates events.
Openness - curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, sophisticated
Most alternative labels
"inquisitiveness" "intellectualness" or even "culture"
Not related to job perforrmance
Job training, help with creative thinking
Except Big Five, one of the most widely administered personality measures in organizations is
the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).
Helps in team building context
Extraversion (being energized by people and social interactions) versus Introversion (being
energized by private time and reflection).
Sensing (preferring clear and concrete facts and data) versus Intuition (preferring hunches
and speculations based on theory and imagination).
Thinking (approaching decisions with logic and critical analysis) versus Feeling
(approaching decisions with an emphasis on others’ needs and feelings).
Judging (approaching tasks by planning and setting goals) versus Perceiving (preferring to
have flexibility and spontaneity when performing tasks)
Interests are expressions of personality that influence behavior through preferences for certain
environments and activities.
Holland’s RIASEC model suggests that interests can be summarized by six different
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MGMT 102 - Final Exam Review
personality types:
Suggests to which employees prefer to work w/ data vs. Ideas or people vs. Things
More career satisfcation, job knowledge, & longevity in occupations that match personality
Realistic: Enjoys practical, hands-on, real-world tasks. Tends to be frank, practical,
determined, and rugged.
Investigative: Enjoys abstract, analytical, theory-oriented tasks. Tends to be analytical,
intellectual, reserved, and scholarly.
Artistic: Enjoys entertaining and fascinating others using imagination. Tends to be original,
independent, impulsive, and creative.
Social: Enjoys helping, serving, or assisting others. Tends to be helpful, inspiring,
informative, and empathic.
Enterprising: Enjoys persuading, leading, or outperforming others. Tends to be energetic,
sociable, ambitious, and risk-taking.
Conventional: Enjoys organizing, counting, or regulating people or things. Tends to be
careful, conservative, self-controlled, and structured.
Cultural values are defined as shared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in
a given culture.
Culture is defined as the shared values, beliefs, motives, identities, and interpretations that
result from common experiences of members of a society and are transmitted across
The most well-known taxonomy of cultural values was derived from a landmark study in the
late 1960s and early 1970s by Geert Hofstede, who analyzed data from 88,000 IBM employees
from 72 countries in 20 languages.
Those dimensions include individualism collectivism, power distance, uncertainty
avoidance, and masculinityfemininity. A subsequent study added a fifth dimension to the
taxonomy: short-term vs. long-term orientation.
Project GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) is a collection
of 170 researchers from 62 cultures who have studied 17,300 managers in 951 organizations
since 1991.
For example, Project GLOBE identified both power distance and uncertainty avoidance as
key dimensions of cultural values. The project also identified collectivism, though it was
differentiated into institutional collectivism (where formalized practices encourage collective
action and collective distribution of resources) and ingroup collectivism (where
individuals express pride and loyalty to specific ingroups).
Gender Egalitarianism. The culture promotes gender equality and minimizes role
differences between men and women. High: Nordic Europe, Eastern Europe. Low: Middle
Assertiveness. The culture values assertiveness, confrontation, and aggressiveness in social
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