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Chapter 13-14

MGMT 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13-14: Centrality, Ingratiation, Trait Theory

Course Code
MGMT 102
Jennifer Hite

of 3
Chapter 13: Leadership: Process and Negotiation
1. What are functional and dysfunctional conflict? In your answer, discuss what
kind of outcomes each has for individuals and their organizations.
*Functional conflict is healthy constructive disagreement between groups or individuals
resulting in a win-win solution/a compromise. Dysfunctional is unhealthy and destructive.
2. Contrast leadership and power.
*Leadership is the ability to influence followers towards goal achievement. Power is the
ability to get something done and to resist unwanted influence.
3. Name the four contingencies of power and explain how they affect a leader's
ability to influence others.
*Substitutability is the degree to which people have alternatives in accessing resources
(leaders that can control access to things that no one else has, have greater influence).
Discretion is the degree to which the manager has the right to make decisions (if
manager has to follow rules then their influence is reduced). Centrality is the degree of
importance for a person’s job and how many people depend on that person (leaders
performing critical tasks have greater influence). Visibility is how aware others are of a
leader’s power and position (if everyone is aware of the leader’s position and power the
leader has more influence).
4. What are the 11 influence tactics discussed in the text and in class? Which harm
one’s work relationships and which don’t harm those relationships?
*Harmful = Pressure, Coalition
*Not Harmful = Rational Persuasion, consultation, inspirational appeals, collaboration,
Ingratiation, personal appeals, exchange, appraising, Legitimatization
5. Distinguish between internalization and compliance.
*Internalization = Target agrees with and becomes committed to the influence request; a
shift in behavior and attitude
*compliance is when the target does what the leader wants but with ambivalent feelings;
a shift in behavior but not attitude
6. What is political skill? Explain the different types of political skill.
*The ability to effectively understand others at work and use that knowledge to influence
others in ways that enhance personal and/or organizational objectives.
*Interpersonal influence = involves having unassuming and convincing personal style
that’s flexible enough to adapt to different situations; Networking abilities = adeptness at
identifying and developing diverse contacts; social astuteness = Tendency to observe
others and accurately interpret their behaviors; Apparent sincerity = Involves appearing
to others to have high levels of honesty and genuineness
7. What are the five conflict management styles? Describe each in terms of their
concern for one’s self and concern for another. Which is the most effective?
*5 styles are combo of two things: how assertive and cooperative leaders are
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*Competing (High assertive, low cooperation); Avoiding (Low assertive, low
cooperation), Accommodating (Low assertive, high cooperative), Collaboration (High
assertive, high cooperation, Compromise (moderate assertive, moderate cooperation)
*Collaboration is most effective
8. What is negotiation?
* Process where two or more interdependent individuals discuss and attempt to come to
an agreement about their different perspectives.
9. Compare and contrast distributive and integrative bargaining. Can you see any
similarities between these negotiation strategies and any of the conflict
management styles?
*Distributive bargaining involves win-lose negotiating over a fixed-pie of resources (one
person gain and one loses); integrative involves a win-win scenario where the use of
mutual respect and problem solving achieve an outcome that is satisfying for both
Chapter 14: Leadership: Styles and Behaviors
1. Describe the similarities and differences between leading and managing.
2. Critically examine the statement: "Leaders are born, not made." What theory of
leadership espouses this ideal?
*Trait Theory of Leadership
3. Differentiate between initiating structure and consideration.
*Ohio State Study shows that there are 4 possibilities of leader behavior: They can have
high-low consideration for employees (where they value their employees’ needs and
wants) and high-low structure (where they give task guidance)
4. What is transformational leadership? Describe the "four I's" of transformational
*Inspire followers to trust leader and contribute to the achievement of organizational
goals and perform at high levels.
*Idealized Influence: Behavior that earns trust, respect and admiration
*Inspirational Motivation: Behavior that fosters enthusiasm
*Intellect Stimulation: Challenges followers to be innovative and creative
*Individualized Consideration: Helping followers reach potential through individualized
5. Compare transactional and transformational leadership.
*More motivational approach than other management approaches. Transactional
approach is when leader punishes or rewards employee depending on the follower’s
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6. What is charisma? How is a charismatic leader different from a transformational
*A Greek word that means divinely inspired gift reflects a sense among followers that
the leader possesses extraordinary qualities.
7. Describe the leader-member exchange theory. Explain the two types of dyads.
*Theory that describes leader-member relationship and how it develops over time. This
relationship is marked by a role-taking phase and role-making phase
8. Describe the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership. What theory of motivation is it
based on?
*Leaders are most effective when they can clarify the path to goals and rewards. It is
based on Fiedler and the Expectancy theory
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