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Chapter 2

PSY BEH 104S Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Leon Festinger, Research On The Effects Of Violence In Mass Media, Field ExperimentExam

Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
Joanne Zinger

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Practice Questions
1. From dissonance theory, Leon Festinger was able to make specific predictions about when and how
people would change their attitudes. We call these specific predictions:
a) theories.
b) hypotheses.
c) observations.
d) methods.
2. Using archival analyses, scientists describe a culture by:
a) surveying a representative sample of members in a culture.
b) observing the behavior of members in a culture.
c) manipulating archives and measuring subsequent responses.
d) examining documents like magazines, diaries, and suicide notes.
3. When INCREASES in the value of one variable are associated with DECREASES in the value of the
other variable, then the variables are:
a) positively correlated.
b) negatively correlated.
c) uncorrelated.
d) independent.
4. As long as the sample is selected randomly, we can assume that the sampled responses:
a) are a reasonable match to responses of the whole population.
b) correlate with one another.
c) reflect the true beliefs and opinions of the individuals sampled.
d) are determined by chance factors.
5. From studies which indicate that viewing television violence is positively correlated with aggressive
behavior in children, we can conclude that watching violence on television causes aggressive behavior
a) True
b) False
6. A “____ experiment” is identical in design to a laboratory experiment except that it is conducted
in a real-life setting.
a) situational
b) field
c) quasi
d) real-life

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7. How should research be conducted in order to resolve the basic dilemma of the social psychologist?
a) By trying not to do it all in a single experiment but instead doing replications; conduct some
experiments that have internal validity and others that have external validity.
b) Conduct carefully designed experiments that have both internal and external validity.
c) Do all research in the field.
d) Conduct applied rather than basic research.
8. Which of the following is a statistical technique that allows researchers to test how reliable the
effects of an independent variable are over many replications?
a) correlation coefficient
b) deception
c) meta-analysis
d) double blind
9. Two individuals independently observe the same behavior at a playground. If one reports seven
instances of “aggression” and the other records 17 such instances, then ____ will be low.
a) interjudge reliability
b) internal validity
c) generalizability
d) external validity
10. Height and weight are _____ correlated.
a) negatively
b) positively
c) not
d) insignificantly
11. Latané and Darley (1968) varied the number of witnesses to an emergency and measured helping
behavior. In this experiment _____ was the independent variable and ____ was the dependent variable.
a) helping behavior; the number of witnesses
b) the number of witnesses; helping behavior
c) the emergency; helping behavior
d) number of witnesses; the emergency
12. When the only aspect that varies across conditions in an experiment is the independent variable(s),
the experiment is said to have:
a) internal validity.
b) external validity.
c) reliability.
d) generalizability.
13. Social psychologists are most concerned with generalizability across:
a) independent and dependent variables.
b) theories and hypotheses.
c) identical experiments.
d) situations and people.

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14. Matt is sitting in a room waiting to take part in a psychology experiment when smoke begins pouring
out of a vent in the ceiling. Matt does not realize it, but this is actually part of the experiment. He
becomes very concerned that there is actually a fire somewhere in the building. This experiment:
a) does not have psychological realism.
b) has psychological realism.
c) is a field experiment.
d) cannot possibly have external validity.
15. The basic dilemma of the social psychologist is that:
a) there is usually a tradeoff in experiments between internal and external validity.
b) individual differences among participants can never be ruled out as alternative explanations
for experimental results.
c) there is a tradeoff between mundane and psychological realism.
d) people behave differently when they are being observed.
16. While ____ research aims to solve a specific problem, ____ research tries to understand human
social behavior purely for reasons of intellectual curiosity.
a) basic; applied
b) applied; basic
c) theoretical; practical
d) practical; theoretical
17. Which of the following is among the American Psychological Association’s list of guidelines for
conducting ethical research in psychology?
a) The results of the study must be revealed during a debriefing.
b) No research procedures may be used to deceive subjects about the true nature of the study.
c) Psychologists have a primary obligation, and must take reasonable precautions, to protect
confidential information.
d) All participants must agree to complete the experiment once it has begun.
18. What is the best research method to use to find out if watching violent pornography affects men’s
attitudes toward women?
a) case study
b) participant observation
c) experiment
d) survey
19. Why is the experiment considered the method of choice by most social psychologists?
a) It is the least expensive method.
b) It is the only method that describes human behavior.
c) It is the only method that discovers correlational relationships between variables.
d) It is the only method that allows the experimenter to make causal inferences.
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