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Chapter 11

PSY BEH 104S Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Social Exchange Theory, Prosocial Behavior, Belleville, IllinoisExam

Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
Joanne Zinger

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Chapter 11 Practice Questions
1. Prosocial behavior is:
a) performed without any regard to self-interests.
b) appreciated by everyone we help.
c) performed with the goal of benefiting another person.
d) all the above.
2. The notion of kin selection dictates that you are most likely to help someone who is:
a) genetically similar to you.
b) a potential mate.
c) physically attractive.
d) likely to return the favor.
3. According to social exchange theory, relationships are best understood by:
a) assuming that others will treat us the way we treat them.
b) realizing that people desire to maximize their benefits and minimize their costs.
c) applying evolutionary theory to social behavior.
d) examining people’s use of information gleaned by observing others in the situation.
4. Batson’s empathy-altruism hypothesis states that we will help a victim of misfortune regardless of whether helping is in
our best interests if:
a) we perceive that the victim is dissimilar to us.
b) the costs of helping are minimal.
c) the victim is unable to control his or her performance.
d) we experience the victim’s pain and suffering.
5. Maris is more likely than John to help a:
a) child in a burning building.
b) pilot struggling from the wreckage of an airplane.
c) man drowning in a lake.
d) elderly neighbor do his weekly shopping.
6. Playing prosocial video games and listening to songs with prosocial lyrics can increase prosocial behavior.
a) True
b) False
7. Which of the following best characterizes the effects of mood on helping behavior?
a) Good moods increase helping.
b) Bad moods increase helping.
c) Either good or bad moods can increase helping.
d) Neither good nor bad moods can increase helping.
8. Some researchers suggest that the emotion of _____ evolved in order to regulate reciprocity.
a) shame
b) gratitude
c) fear
d) love
9. The bystander effect can be defined as:
a) the attempt to help people regardless of what we have to gain.
b) the likelihood that any one person will help decreases as the number of witnesses to an emergency increases.
c) the assumption that others will treat us the way we treat them.
d) the likelihood that people will perform impulsive and deviant acts increases as group size increases.

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10. Having identified a situation as a clear emergency requiring help, helping may still be inhibited by:
a) pluralistic ignorance.
b) diffusion of responsibility.
c) distraction.
d) overjustification.
11. Some evolutionary theorists argue that natural selection also operates at the level of the
a) triad.
b) family.
c) group.
d) dyad.
12. Which of the following concepts have evolutionary psychologists used to explain prosocial behavior?
a) kin selection and norms of reciprocity
b) empathy and altruism
c) immediate rewards and punishments
d) urban overload and diffusion of responsibility
13. How does social exchange theory differ from the evolutionary approach to prosocial behavior?
a) Only social exchange theory maintains that prosocial behavior is motivated by self- interest.
b) Only social exchange theory maintains that prosocial behavior is truly altruistic.
c) Only the evolutionary approach traces prosocial behavior back to evolutionary roots.
d) Only the evolutionary approach maintains that people desire to maximize their rewards.
14. People who attend religious services report on surveys that they give more money to charity, and engage in more
volunteer work, than do people who do not attend religious services.
a) True
b) False
15. Why do researchers typically find that people who score high on personality tests of altruism are no more likely to
help than those who score low?
a) because personality tests of altruism are invalid
b) because situational influences also determine helping behavior
c) because people’s personalities change greatly over time
d) because altruism can be instilled in children who might otherwise not score high on personality tests of
16. People experiencing guilt tend to be helpful because:
a) they often act on the idea that good deeds cancel out bad deeds.
b) they are more likely to interpret situations as emergencies.
c) they are more likely to notice situations in which emergencies occur.
d) gratitude from the victim will reassure them that they are still likable.
17. Milgram’s (1970) urban-overload hypothesis states that people in cities are less likely to help than people in rural
areas because city dwellers:
a) are more aware of the negative consequences of helping.
b) are less likely to know what form of assistance they should give.
c) keep to themselves in order to avoid excess stimulation.
d) are more likely to use confused bystanders as a source of misinformation.
18. Latané and Darley (1970) attributed the murder of Kitty Genovese in New York City to the:
a) large number of bystanders who witnessed the emergency.
b) small number of bystanders who witnessed the emergency.
c) lessons that city dwellers learn about keeping to themselves.
d) insufficient amount of stimulation experienced by the witnesses.
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