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Chapter 12

PSY BEH 104S Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Nonviolent Video Game, Convenience Store, Corporal PunishmentExam

Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
Joanne Zinger

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Chapter 12 Practice Questions
1. Which of the following behaviors best demonstrates instrumental aggression?
a) shooting clay pigeons with a shotgun
b) intentionally tripping a classmate during recess
c) running a stop sign, thereby causing an accident
d) holding up a clerk while robbing a convenience store
2. Freud held a “hydraulic” idea of aggressive impulses that maintains that:
a) aggression will leak if the individual is not emotionally strong enough to restrain his/her aggressive
urges. b) heated, frustrating situations heighten aggressive energy to the boiling point.
c) people who pour out their aggressive energies are likely to flood others with aggressive urges.
d) aggressive energy must be released to avoid build-up and an explosion resulting in illness.
3. Though humans are born with the capacity for aggressive behavior, but how, whether, when, and where we
express it:
a) is rigidly preprogrammed.
b) is not conditional.
c) is learned and depends on our circumstances and culture.
d) is incompatible with a social existence.
4. Research reveals that naturally occurring testosterone levels are higher among prisoners:
a) with neurological disorders.
b) convicted of violent crimes.
c) with personality disorders.
d) convicted of embezzlement.
5. Carlsmith and Anderson (1979) found that riots between 1967 and 1971 were far more likely to occur on:
a) hot days than on cool days.
b) rainy days than on sunny days.
c) weekends than on weekdays.
d) odd-numbered years than on even-numbered years.
6. Findings by Berkowitz and LePage (1967) that angry participants were more likely to deliver shocks to a
fellow student when a gun was present in the room indicate that:
a) the presence of weapons increases the probability that frustration will occur.
b) the presence of weapons in and of itself is sufficient to trigger aggressive actions.
c) the presence of weapons increases the probability an aggressive response will occur.
d) all of the above
7. At recess, a boy can choose to play with one of four classmates. Which classmate should he AVOID if he
wants to play a nonviolent game of basketball?
a) Johnny, who tends to be aggressive and has just watched a television program hosted by a soft-spoken
man on television.
b) Rich, who is generally not aggressive and has just watched a violent G.I. Joe cartoon on television.
c) Sam, who tends to be aggressive and has just watched a violent G.I. Joe cartoon on television.
d) Tim, who is generally not aggressive and has just watched a television program hosted by a soft-
spoken man on television.
8. Physical punishment may not curb aggressive actions by children because such punishment:
a) is difficult for children to understand.

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b) is not supported by social norms.
c) models aggressive behavior.
d) provides insufficient justification for behaving nonaggressively.
9. Research shows that “blowing off steam” by engaging in competitive and aggressive games or by watching
others do so:
a) increases aggressive feelings.
b) decreases aggressive feelings.
c) evokes people’s primary tendencies.
d) inhibits aggressive behavior.
10. Dissonance arises when we aggress toward someone who is deserving of our retaliation because:
a) our retaliations are often more hurtful than the act for which we are retaliating.
b) we often fail to perceive that people are deserving of retaliation.
c) we often underestimate the impact retaliation has on deserving victims.
d) we do not like to think of ourselves as aggressive even when aggression is warranted.
11. If you are feeling angry with someone, what is the most effective way to deal with your anger?
a) Keep your feelings to yourself.
b) Express your anger in an aggressive manner.
c) Observe violence among others.
d) Calmly indicate that you are feeling angry and explain why.
12. Research shows that an apology sincerely given and in which the perpetrator takes full responsibility:
a) is a waste of time and causes further aggression.
b) is ineffective at reducing aggression.
c) is effective at reducing aggression.
d) decreases the power of a real man and makes him look weak.
13. According to the U.S. Department of Justice Statistics in 2011, of the 3.5 million violent crimes committed
against family members in a five-year period, 25% were crimes against spouses.
a) True
b) False
14. Kuo’s (1961) finding that a cat raised with a rat from birth refrained from attacking the rat or other rats
suggests that:
a) instincts may be inhibited by experience.
b) aggressive behavior is not instinctive.
c) raising different species of animals together lowers the animals’ levels of testosterone.
d) frustration is necessary to produce an aggressive response.
15. According to the U.S. Department of Justice Statistics in 2011, among victims of abuse by a spouse or other
intimate partner, _____ percent were women.
a) 24
b) 84
c) 50
d) 17
16. The theory that predicts you will act with the intention to hurt others when you are thwarted from attaining a
goal is called:

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a) social learning theory.
b) cathartic aggression theory.
c) frustration-aggression theory.
d) deprivation theory.
17. Numerous surveys in the United States and Canada report that some males begin to abuse girls:
a) as early as preschool.
b) in high school.
c) in college.
d) as early as elementary school.
18. Findings that children were more likely to beat up a Bobo doll after watching an adult do so led Bandura
(1961, 1963) to conclude that:
a) aggression may be learned by imitating aggressive models.
b) there are striking differences in instinctive aggressive drives among children.
c) watching aggressive behavior is intrinsically rewarding.
d) observing aggression by adults unleashes children’s inherent aggressiveness.
19. Which of the following best summarizes the effects of viewing sexually explicit material on aggression
toward women?
a) Viewing sexually explicit material, in and of itself, increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior
toward women.
b) Viewing materials that combine sex with violence increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior
toward women.
c) Viewing materials that combine sex with violence appears to be harmless.
d) Viewing nonviolent material that depicts women as objects increases the likelihood of aggression
toward women.
20. Geen et al. (1975) found that participants were most likely to shock an experimental accomplice who had
angered them if:
a) they had shocked the accomplice on a previous occasion.
b) they had been unable to shock the accomplice on a previous occasion.
c) they expected the accomplice to shock them later in the experiment.
d) the experimenter had informed them that the shocks would facilitate learning by the accomplice.
21. Pennebaker (1990) suggests that the beneficial effects of “opening up” and talking about one’s feelings are
the result of:
a) blowing off steam.
b) increased insight and self-awareness.
c) revealing one’s dependency on others.
d) increased empathy with others.
22. Evidence that people find it easier to aggress toward those they have dehumanized suggests that people will
find it difficult to aggress toward people whom:
a) they feel empathy toward.
b) are dissimilar to them.
c) have not provoked them.
d) model aggressive behavior.
23. According to social psychologists, voluntary behavior geared to cause either psychological or physical pain
is called a(n):
a) hostile action.
b) aggression.
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