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Chapter 13

PSY BEH 104S Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Gordon Allport, Victim Blaming, Stereotype ThreatExam

Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
Joanne Zinger

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Chapter 13 Practice Questions
1. Once formed, stereotypes:
a) easily change when contradictory information is encountered.
b) develop into more elaborate and complex categories.
c) deteriorate unless challenged by contradictory information.
d) are resistant to change on the basis of new information.
2. A 2009 survey of African American college graduates looking for jobs in Chicago found that many said they had:
a) lied about their grade point average (GPA).
b) lied about their experience.
c) “whitened” their résumés.
d) lied about their age.
3. According to Gordon Allport, stereotypes result:
a) from our efforts to maximize our cognitive time and energy.
b) from the breakdown of once normal cognitive processes.
c) from conflicts that exist between groups when resources are limited.
d) when individuals adhere to norms which foster prejudice.
4. Individuals emotionally involved in their beliefs about a target group are not likely to be persuaded by opposing
arguments because:
a) such individuals have amassed a large number of arguments to defend their position.
b) attitudes based on emotions are not affected by logical arguments.
c) arousal caused by emotional involvement interferes with normal cognitive processing.
d) they are unable to process arguments and must rely on less persuasive peripheral cues.
5. According to Devine’s (1989) two-step model of cognitive processing, simply knowing stereotypes that you do not
believe affects your cognitive processing because:
a) we are constantly aware of the stereotypes.
b) we can recall the stereotypes at will.
c) the stereotypes are inconsistent with our beliefs.
d) the stereotypes are automatically activated.
6. Although majority groups may hold prejudices about minority groups, minority groups do no hold prejudices about the
majority groups.
a) True
b) False
7. When students read that a prisoner had committed a crime that matched the common stereotype of the offender,
Bodenhausen and Wyer (1985) found that the students:
a) ignored other information that was inconsistent with the stereotype and were harsher in their recommendations
for parole.
b) were puzzled by other information that was inconsistent with the stereotype and refrained from making any
c) dismissed the information that was consistent with the stereotype and were harsher in their recommendations
for parole.
d) made situational attributions for the crime and were more lenient in their recommendations for parole.
8. Defense attorneys who focus the jury’s attention on the sexual histories of sexual assault victims are exploiting people’s
tendency to:
a) make situational attributions.
b) perceive out-group heterogeneity.
c) blame the victim.
d) convict rather than to acquit the accused.

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9. Realistic conflict theory maintains that:
a) abundant resources produces greed and negative feelings toward out-groups.
b) conflict experienced within a group is likely to be attributed to members of an out-group.
c) mutual interdependence among groups produces competition and negative feelings toward competing groups.
d) limited resources produce competition and negative feelings toward competing groups.
10. Institutionalized racism and sexism arise when:
a) people are angered or frustrated by social institutions.
b) two or more groups must depend on each other in order to accomplish a common goal.
c) negative stereotypes become the fundamental categories people use to organize their experiences.
d) people live in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are normative.
11. Stereotypes result from our tendency to:
a) present ourselves favorably.
b) categorize people and events.
c) reduce cognitive dissonance.
d) maintain our self-esteem.
12. Prejudice is:
a) any behavior aimed at physically or emotionally harming people who are members of a discernible group.
b) a generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members
of the group.
c) a hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that
d) the tendency to categorize people into groups, based on some specific characterization.
13. Gordon Allport described stereotyping as “the law of least effort.”
a) True
b) False
14. The bigot’s cry, “They all look alike to me,” illustrates one consequence of social categorization called the:
a) perception of out-group homogeneity.
b) in-group bias.
c) illusory correlation.
d) ultimate attribution error.
15. Positive stereotypes are beneficial because they help members of the target group feel good about themselves.
a) True
b) False
16. Illusory correlations are especially likely to be found between minorities and unrelated events because minorities are:
a) powerless.
b) outspoken.
c) distinctive.
d) victimized.
17. Furnham and Gunter (1984) have found that negative attitudes toward the poor and homeless are more prevalent
among individuals who:
a) score high on measures of self-esteem.
b) tend to be high in self-awareness.
c) believe we live in a “dog-eat-dog” world.
d) have a strong belief in a “just world.”
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