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Chapter 7

PSY BEH 11B Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Classical Conditioning, Dishabituation, Habituation


Department
Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
PSY BEH 11B
Professor
Kier Groulx
Chapter
7

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PsyBeh 11B (54050) Week 1
Reading 1 (Gleitman Ch. 7, pgs. 259-278)
Chapter 7 Learning
Forms of learning
o Habituation
o Classical Conditioning
o Operant conditioning
Comparison of Forms of Learning
o Habituation only tells organism about single stimulus
What is and isn’t safe to ignore
The Perspective of Learning Theory
o Learning development of new skills, acquisition of new knowledge, etc.
Creating associations among ideas
Result of direct experience
o Complex learning
Just more associations, layer upon layer
Linking together individual ideas
o Learning Theorists
If learning depends on same mechanisms, then what form of learning
chosen doesn’t matter
Habituation
o An organism’s tendency to react less towards a familiar stimulus
o Benefit
Becoming suitably selective through habituation
Ignore stimuli we’re already familiar with and deem insignificant, and
focus on the newer ones
o Dishabituation
An increase in response towards a change in something familiar
Importance
Helps us recognize changes in stimuli
Changes usually signal important events
Calls attention to a new information
o Experiments
“Use it or lose it
In Japanese perspective, “la” and “ra” sound the same
Experiment with infants from both Japan and English
Both cases responded to the change from “la” to “ra”
However, by 12 months, they’ve lost ability to differentiate the two
What does this prove?
Perception can change from experience
Researched relied on habituation and dishabituation
o Straightforward way of understanding perceptual
capabilities of children
Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian Conditioning)
o Pavlov and Conditioned Response
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Pavlov original Nobel Prize in digestive physiology
o Unconditioned response (UR)
Biologically determined reflex
Independent of learning
Trigger is unconditioned stimulus (US)
Linkage that makes US trigger UR is unconditioned
Ex: Food (US) causes dog to salivate (UR)
o Conditioned response (CR)
Product of learning
Conditioned stimulus (CS) Initially neutral stimulus but becomes
associated with US during experiment
Ex: Bell (CS) because dog no initial reaction to it, but during
experiment becomes associated to US
o Major Phenomena of Classical Conditioning
General procedure
Need US and UR biologically linked, then CS paired with US to
create CR
o Acquisition of Conditioned Responses
Conditioning procedure
Initially, CS does not link to CR
After paired with US, changes so that CS now provokes CR
Learning is gradual
Strength off CR grows as more experience
Second-order conditioning
Before conditioning
o Food (US) first linked to Salivation (UR)
First Order conditioning
o Then Light (CS) linked to Food (US) creates CR
Second Order conditioning
o Then Bell (CS) linked to LIGHT (CS) creates CR
o Doesn’t introduce food at all
o Extinction
Undoing of learned response so that response is no longer produced
Is NOT a result of forgetting previously learned behavior
Response can be extinguished very easily
Forgetting takes substantially longer time
Classical conditioning undone
Introducing CS on it’s own, without US, decreases CR
Spontaneous recovery
CS-US pairing triggers CR
CS without US CR extinguished
CS presented alone, weak CR spontaneous recovery
Phenomenon seen in animals who’ve gone through extinction
procedure then left alone to rest for a while
What does this mean?
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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