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Chapter 8

PSY BEH 11B Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Long-Term Memory, Iconic Memory, Echoic Memory


Department
Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
PSY BEH 11B
Professor
Kier Groulx
Chapter
8

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PsyBeh 11B Week 3
Reading 4 (Gleitman Ch. 8, pgs. 301-313)
Memory
Genghis Khan and his plans
o Formulation of complex plans were problematic
o His soldiers were illiterate peasants
o Solution: put the orders in a song
Song
o All soldiers learned a small set of melodies
o Practiced over their marches
o Memorized a few new verses for an old song
Large segments of Eurasia fell
Other memorization strategies used by other world powers
o Greeks used memorization tricks for speeches
o Medical students have strategies to help them with anatomy, drug names, and
disease symptoms
Helps us recall that we can get enormous amounts of information and be able to call it
forth with accuracy
o Sometimes, however, we remember things that never happened at all
o Happens far more often than we realize
Memories blend together separate incidents, introduce details and
incorporate others’ versions of events into our own
Acquisition, Storage, and Retrieval
Remembering episodes, general facts, and skills and procedures
o They each draw on different memory systems
o But they do all have something in common
Any act of remembering
o Requires three aspects of memory process
Acquisition Must learn something (must have information to store)
Failures of memory are often failures at this initial stage of
acquisition
Storage experience must leave some record in the nervous system
Memory trace record
Retrieval draw information from storage and use it
Forms of retrieval
o Recall retrieve info in response to some cue or question
Resembles short answer or essay
o Recognition presented with a name, fact, or situation and
asked if encountered before
Resembles multiple choice exam
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Acquisition
Used in cases of deliberate memorization (intentional learning) as well as incidental
learning (without intention to memorize)
o Memory acquisition not just “copying” event of fact into memory
Requires intellectual engagement with material
Thinking about it in some way
This product of engagement is stored in memory
Crucial for what you will remember and how accurately your
memory remembers
Working Memory, Long-Term Memory
o Stage theory of memory proposed that memory acquisition depends on three
types of memory
First arrival of info sensory memory
Visual inputs iconic memory
Auditory inputs echoic memory
o Then moved into short-term memory
Holds info while working on it
o Then to long-term memory
Larger and more permanent storage place
o This early conception captured some truths, though needs updating
Sensory memory actually plays a much smaller role
No mention of iconic memory
Working memory replace “short-term memory”
Ideas and thoughts in this memory are currently activated
Being worked on
Long-term memory cast depository containing all knowledge and all
your beliefs that you aren’t currently thinking about
o Stage theory of memory concept
Working memory understood as storage place
Or “loading dock” just outside long-term memory “warehouse”
Modern-day says that working memory is not a “place” at all; it’s a
name for a status
“in working memory” – currently activated
Focus on status
This is the key to understanding difference between working
memory and long-term memory
Summary of Stage theory of memory flaws
Modern Working memory and long-term memory are “active” or
“not” respectively
Stage theory time frame “short term” or “long”
Primacy and Recency
o Free recall free to recall the items in any sequence
Usually a pattern for which recall
Words at beginning are very likely to be recalled
Primacy Effect memory advantage for early-presented words
Recency Effect memory advantage for last few words presented
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