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Chapter 11

PSY BEH 11C Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Abraham Maslow, Bulimia Nervosa, Walter Bradford Cannon


Department
Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
PSY BEH 11C
Professor
Joanne Zinger
Chapter
11

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CHAPTER 11: HEALTH AND WELL-BEING
stress decreases the ability of immune system to fight off infections
hormones released during prolonged states of anxiety/ stress (i.e. cortisol) can
cause or increase hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart disease, diabetes, etc
11.1 WHAT AFFECTS HEALTH
health psychology: integrates research on health & psych
rely on research methods to understand interrelationship between thoughts,
actions, physical/ mental health
mental states: outlook on life, behaviors, helping people regain health & well-being
well-being: positive state that is sought by striving for optimal health and life
satisfaction
SOCIAL CONTEXT, BIOLOGY, AND BEHAVIOR COMBINE TO AFFECT HEALTH
biopsychosocial model: health & illness result from combination of factors, such as bio
characteristics, behavioral factors, social conditions
understand difference between traditional medical model & approach by health
psychologists
traditional: individual is passive
health psychologists: individual’s thoughts, feelings, behaviors central to
understanding and improving health
thoughts & actions affect people’s choices of environments they interact with
infections & communicable diseases: leading causes of mortality in developing countries
U.S.: heart diseases and accidents > infectious disease
deaths partly outcomes of lifestyles
health disparities
worldwide, racial and ethnic groups:
experience differences in their health include genetic variation in
susceptibility to some diseases, health care, cultural factors
resources may be lacking to provide treatments
different lifestyles
OBESITY AND MALADAPTIVE EATING HABITS HAVE MANY HEALTH CONSEQUENCES
obesity: major health problem with physical consequences (health disease, high blood
pressure, diabetes, etc)
measure: body mass index (BMI): ratio of body weight to height
over 25: overweight; over 30: obese
2 issues:
1. does not take age, sex, bone structure, body fat distribution into
account
2. clear relationship between BMI & health outcomes does not
exist except for the very obese
analysis: 97 studies. slightly overweight had lower probability of dying from any cause
during study periods than people with recommended BMIs (25-30)
did not have greater risk of death

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low BMIs: increased risk for premature death
maladaptive eating habits —> metabolic syndrome
, constellation of risk factors. result of
poor nutrition rather than body weight per se
body shape index
:
considers the amount of abdominal fat relative to BMI —> predicts
health outcomes better
many obese people store fat in abdomen —> symptoms of metabolic syndrome
extreme obesity: 1/20 americans
another factor: increase in the variety of available food & when portions are larger
3 factors: sheer variety of high-calorie foods, large portions served in restaurants,
individual responses to food cues
body weight may be socially contagious (learn body weight around you is normal)
obesity tends to run in families (genetic)
heritability of body weight: 60-80%
genetics determine whether they CAN become obese, environment determines
whether they WILL become obese
different cultures view obesity differently
restrictive dieting: ineffective means of achieving permanent weight loss
most people who lose weight through dieting eventually regain the weight (more
than what they lost)
2 experiments:
1. challenged to increase their body weight by 25% (some went
back to normal, some stayed obese)
2. semi-starvation —> dramatic changes in emotions, motivation,
attitudes toward food
body responds to weight loss by slowing down metabolism & using less energy
restrained eaters: prone to excessive eating in certain situations
i.e. believe they have eaten high-calorie foods —> abandon their diets “blown my
diet, might as well keep eating”.
stress also contributes to breaking diets
binge eating depends on perceptions
of whether they have broken diets
rely on cognitive control of food intake (eat according to rules)
disordered eating
fail to lose weight —> blame lack of willpower
repeated failures diminish satisfaction with body image & damage self-esteem
three most common eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,
binge-eating disorder
anorexia nervosa: excessive fear of becoming fat and severely restrict
how much they eat
leads to unhealthy body weight
1/100 meet criteria of anorexia
few themselves fat even though they are at significantly low weight
(BMIs under 17)
starves herself, vomit, abuse of laxatives, excessive exercise
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