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Chapter 7

PSY BEH 9 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Contiguity, Exposure Therapy, Classical Conditioning

Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
Jodi Anne Quas

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Ch. 7: Learning
Habituation- decline in the response to a stimulus once the stimulus has become familiar
oSo we pay attention to unfamiliar stimuli and don’t waste time scrutinizing every
stimulus we come across
oDishabituation- an increase in responding, caused by a change in something
oJapanese/American infants & “la,la,la”/”ra,ra,ra”
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov and the conditioned response
oDog’s salivation could be set off by a range of other stimuli
oUnconditioned response- biologically determined reflex, triggered by a certain
stimulus independent of any learning
Trigger for an unconditioned response was an unconditioned stimulus
US = food in the animal’s mouth; UR = salivation
Conditioned response- triggered by a specific stimulus, but it’s stimulus
that was neutral at the start of learning
Conditioned stimulus- a stimulus that’s initially neutral but becomes
associated with the US during the experiment
Major phenomena of classical conditioning
oAcquisition of conditioned response
Learning is gradual; strength of the CR slowly grows as the animal
experiences more and more pairings of CS and US
Second-order conditioning- a procedure in which a neutral stimulus (the
bell) is paired with some already established CS (like the light)
Ex. Condition a dog to salivate whenever it sees the light that
signals food  sound bell and follow that by light  after enough
pairings, bell with be a signal for the light, which we’ve already
established as a signal for the appearance of food
Second-order conditioning considerably extends the power and
importance of classical conditioning  can sometimes lead to
Extinction- the undoing of a previously learned response so that the
response is no longer produced
Extinction is much faster than forgetting
Reconditioning the same association after extinction takes much less time
than the initial conditioning did
Spontaneous recovery- the reappearance of an extinguished response
after a period in which no further conditioning trials have been presented
exposure therapy, modeled after the extinction procedure: the
person is repeatedly exposed to the specific stimulus or situation
that has been a source of anxiety
when exposure therapy ends, people often relapse and again
become anxious (an example of spontaneous recovery)
Stimulus generalization- the tendency for stimuli similar to those used
during learning to elicit a reaction similar to the learned response
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