Ch. 7

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University of California - Irvine
Psychology and Social Behavior
Jodi Anne Quas

Ch. 7: Learning Habituation  Habituation- decline in the response to a stimulus once the stimulus has become familiar o So we pay attention to unfamiliar stimuli and don’t waste time scrutinizing every stimulus we come across o Dishabituation- an increase in responding, caused by a change in something familiar o Japanese/American infants & “la,la,la”/”ra,ra,ra” Classical Conditioning  Pavlov and the conditioned response o Dog’s salivation could be set off by a range of other stimuli o Unconditioned response- biologically determined reflex, triggered by a certain stimulus independent of any learning  Trigger for an unconditioned response was an unconditioned stimulus  US = food in the animal’s mouth; UR = salivation  Conditioned response- triggered by a specific stimulus, but it’s stimulus that was neutral at the start of learning  Conditioned stimulus- a stimulus that’s initially neutral but becomes associated with the US during the experiment  Major phenomena of classical conditioning o Acquisition of conditioned response  Learning is gradual; strength of the CR slowly grows as the animal experiences more and more pairings of CS and US  Second-order conditioning- a procedure in which a neutral stimulus (the bell) is paired with some already established CS (like the light) • Ex. Condition a dog to salivate whenever it sees the light that signals food  sound bell and follow that by light  after enough pairings, bell with be a signal for the light, which we’ve already established as a signal for the appearance of food • Second-order conditioning considerably extends the power and importance of classical conditioning  can sometimes lead to phobias o Extinction  Extinction- th
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