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Chapter 1,2

PSYCH 9A Chapter Notes - Chapter 1,2: Effect Size, Standard Deviation, Scientific Method

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Thomas Michael D' Zmura

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Monday, January 22, 2018
Chapter 1
Early Psychology
Nature vs. Nurture: biologically innate or acquired
Mind/Body Problem: mind and body separate or mind part of brain activity
Freud and unconsciousness
Psychoanalysis: bring contents in unconscious to conscious awareness
Beginnings of Psychology as a Field
Experimental Psychology
Reaction times
Introspection - try to talk to the person and see what’s going on in their minds
Structuralism: looks at conscious experience can be broken down into basic
Use introspection to see person’s perception of sound to “quality”, “intensity”, etc
Functionalism: mind is constantly changing
Stream of Consciousness: say whatever comes to mind and topics change as they
talk more
Evolutionary Theory: things are constantly changing based on environment
Natural Selection
Gestalt Theory: whole of personal experience is different from sum of its parts
Modern Psychology
Behaviorism: environment forces in behavior
Cognitive Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience: mental functions (intelligence memory)
Social Psychology: how people influence other’s thoughts, feelings, and actions
Clinical Psychology: treating psychological disorders
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Monday, January 22, 2018
Chapter 2
Why is the scientific method so important for psychology?
Allows psychologists to test empirical things
Allows psychologists to separate correct from incorrect claims
A hypothesis is testable if…?
It can be disconfirmed
Defining the Question
Defining the question
Testable hypothesis: falsifiable claim
Operational definition: variable we want to measure
Needs construct validity - make sure you’re testing what you say you’re testing
Define dependent variable: variable that is measured
Define independent variable: variable that is manipulated
Which of the following is a valid reason that scientists refuse to draw
conclusions based on anecdotal evidence?
Anecdotal evidence is informally collected
Anecdotal evidence is not derived from scientific method
Anecdotal evidence is may be based on confirmation biases
Descriptive Studies
Observing behavior objectively and systematically
Case studies: intense observation of unusual person or organization
Observational Studies/Self Reports/Interviews
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